Circumcising newborn boys increases their risk of cot death

Circumcising newborn boys increases their risk of cot death, new research suggests. 

Male babies who have their foreskins removed are likely to suffer from the condition, also known as Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), due to the stress of the procedure, a UK study found.

Such stress may include bleeding and pain or could be related to the procedure separating the infant from its mother and restraining it to a board. 

Researchers believe this may explain why cot death is more common in baby boys than girls.

They wrote: '[Male circumcision], the most common unnecessary surgery in the world, is a major risk-factor for SIDS.' 

Cot death kills around 300 babies in the UK and 3,500 every year in the US.

Circumcising newborn boys increases their risk of cot death, new research suggests (stock)

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), or cot death, is the sudden, unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently healthy baby.

SIDS kills around 3,500 babies in the US and just under 300 in the UK every year.

It usually occurs within the first six months of an infant's life and is more common in those born prematurely or of a low birth weight.

The cause of SIDS is unknown, however, it is associated with tobacco smoke, tangled bedding, co-sleeping with parents and breathing obstructions.

Researchers from the University of Sheffield analysed circumcision rates in babies born between 1999 and 2016 in 15 countries and more than 40 US states.

Prematurity data was also collected from the Center for Disease Prevention and Control, as well as the charity March of Dimes Foundation. 

The findings were published in the journal bioRxiv.  

Results further suggest SIDS rates are significantly lower in US states where Hispanic people make up more than eight per cent of the population. Spanish-speaking countries do not generally circumcise their boys.

In the 22 US states analysed where the health insurance Medicaid covers male circumcision, cot death is significantly higher.

Findings also imply babies born between 24 and 27 weeks, rather than full term at 40 weeks, are three times more likely to die from SIDS.

This may be due to the stress of being hospitalised in intensive care units, or their increased risk of bleeding or complications. 

The researchers believe their results should encourage people to avoid male circumcision unless it is medically needed, such as if the foreskin is too tight or is recurrently becoming infected. 

Such procedures should also be delayed until the child is at least seven years old, if possible.

The scientists add parents should be informed of circumcision's SIDS risk.

A doctor has criticised Love Island over a task that saw contestants care for robotic babies. In Wednesday's episode contestants, such as the now-eliminated Jack and Laura (pictured),  putt their 'babies' to bed covered in loose sheets, despite the risk of cot death

The 'babies', which were also left in the 34C Majorca heat without hats, frequently had loose sheets covering their mouths, which puts infants at risk of sudden infant death via suffocation

This comes after a scientist from the same university warned the parenting task in Wednesday night's episode of Love Island could put babies at risk of cot death.

The episode of the ITV2 reality series, which was watched by 2.6 million people, had contestants looking after 'infants' that cried, and required changing, feeding and comforting.

When it came time to put the 'newborns' to bed, the contestants loosely covered the babies in blankets, which prompted doctors to warn this can cause life-threatening suffocation and strangulation in real life.

Dr Eran Elhaik, who researches cot death at the University of Sheffield, explained to MailOnline that loose sheets are a suffocation hazard and can cause babies to overheat, which both increase the risk of the condition.

He said: 'Swaddling an infant helps to soothe them, if done right. Swaddling is done with a sheet that wraps the infant's body so that they cannot move.

'Done wrong, the infant will move, the sheet will unfold and the sheet and blanket will become a choking hazard.

'That's problem number one, problem number two is overheating due to the use of blankets, which depends on the season and the heating of the room.' 

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July 27, 2018

Sources: Daily Mail

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  • Conjoined twins are preparing to celebrate their birthday after doctors gave them 24 hours to live

    Conjoined twins are preparing to celebrate their birthday after doctors gave them 24 hours to live

    r second birthday after doctors gave them just 24 hours to live.</p><p>Callie and Carter Torres, from Blackfoot, Idaho, were born in January 2017 attached at the pelvis and sharing the same legs.</p><p>The girls are omphalo-ischiopagus twins, meaning they each have their own set of vital organs. </p><p>Although as few as 40 per cent of conjoined twins survive past birth, Callie and Carter are already learning to walk and have come off all medication.</p><p>And while separation surgery is an option, the girls' parents Chelsea, 25, and Nick Torres, 24, insist the sisters are stronger together.</p><p>Conjoined twins Callie (left) and Carter Torres are preparing to celebrate their second birthday after doctors gave them just 24 hours to live. They were born in January 2017 attached at the pelvis. The twins have since defied doctors' expectations and are already learning to walk</p><p>Their parents Chelsea, 25, and Nick Torres, 24 (pictured with their five-year-old son Jaysin) decided against separation surgery when the girls were newborns due to its risks. And they are still shunning the operation, insisting the girls are healthier together than they would be apart</p><p>Pictured as newborns, the twins were born by C-section at 37 weeks. Doctors warned they would unlikely live beyond the 11-week pregnancy mark and recommended a termination</p><p>'The girls' health right now is really good. They don't have to take any medication, they just get little colds here and there like normal kids,' Mrs Torres said.</p><p>'It's incredible to think they have separate hearts, separate stomachs, separate heads – separate personalities too!</p><p>'In the very beginning we did think abortion would be the best option. We thought they would die as soon as they entered world.</p><p>'After the crazy first 24 hours after they were born, they were doing good. They didn't have any issues.'</p><p>Before their arrival, Callie and Carter's parents were told they were conjoined and might not make it.</p><p>However, when the girls were born, all of their worries faded away.</p><p>Mr Torres said: 'I was like "holy c**p, we have two perfect babies.'</p><p>'It was a huge pressure removed from us, because that dreaded thought of "my babies are going to die when they come out" just went away.</p><p>As omphalo-ischiopagus twins, Callie and Carter share the same pelvis and a set of legs, but each have their own vital organs, including a heart, liver, pancreas, digestive tract and lungs</p><p>After overcoming the shock of their daughters being conjoined, the pair decided against separating the girls as newborns and are still shunning the surgery.</p><p>'We don't feel comfortable separating the twins at this point,' Mrs Torres said.</p><p>'They are going to be more unhealthy when separated, than they are right now.</p><p>'The only way we would consider it is if Callie and Carter have sudden health issues that arise or if they want to be separated when they are older.</p><p>'We are going to give them that option, but we must make sure they completely understand the risks involved.'</p><p>The girls, who love playing together and with their brother, have come off all medication. Their parents claim they just suffer the odd cold like any other toddler. Although separation surgery may be an option in the future, they are going to let the girls decide what is best for them</p><p>Although Mr Torres became concerned when he heard the girls were conjoined, he added they were born 'perfect babies' and knew instantly they were 'here to stay'. Although the girls can attract looks from strangers, Mr Torres said he doesn't care and is just happy they are healthy</p><p>The devoted parents are trying to help the girls learn how to walk together, which is a struggle for all conjoined twins.</p><p>'Doctors don't expect them to walk until they are around four. Honestly, I think it will be more like eight,' Mrs Torres said.</p><p>'We don't expect coordination to start happening until they are a lot older. But we thought we might as well start to try early.</p><p>'We're hoping coordination isn't a problem for them.'</p><p>As well as walking being difficult, tasks most parents don't give much thought to are also challenging for Mr and Mrs Torres, such as finding clothes.</p><p>'We were vastly unprepared for the girls to come,' Mr Torres said.</p><p>Mrs Torres added: 'I actually decided to start making the girl's clothes myself.</p><p>'I buy regular clothing. I take two of each item - they have to be the same size and the same brand.</p><p>'I then cut them from the back and sew them together through the middle.</p><p>'I learnt how to do it from a YouTube channel online.'</p><p>Although they spend every second together, the girls apparently have very different personalities. Carter is the 'bully' while 'sweetheart' Callie 'puts up with her sister' </p><p>Thankfully for the parents, their five-year-old son Jaysin is always keen to lend a hand.</p><p>'The three of them all get along pretty well,' Mrs Torres said.</p><p>'If the girls are crying and one of us is busy, Jaysin will go in there and play with them until we are done.</p><p>'He will bring them food, he'll share everything with them. He's been really great.'</p><p>But members of the public can be less understanding towards the family.  </p><p>'When we are out in public with the twins, we get all sorts of reactions,' Mrs Torres said.</p><p>'There have been old ladies who have been like "oh, God wouldn't have wanted those children alive".</p><p>'Others just like to stare. But kids are great fun. They just ask "are they stuck together?" and I'm just like "yeah they got stuck inside my tummy and now they are here".'</p><p>Mr Torres added: 'But you know what, that doesn't matter to us.</p><p>'Just knowing that our girls are healthy and are learning at an everyday rate, it's a great feeling.</p><p>'It's good to know that to them, nothing is wrong. They are not afraid to do anything.'</p><p>Although they spend every second today, Mr and Mrs Torres add Callie and Carter are developing very different personalities.</p><p>'Carter, for the lack of a better term, is a little bully. If she wants something, she will take it,' Mrs Torres said.</p><p>'And if she doesn't want Callie to have something, she'll make sure she doesn't get it.</p><p>'Callie is a little sweetheart. She puts up with her sister. She just likes to hang out, cuddle and eat food.'  </p><p>Conjoined twins occur when siblings have their skin or internal organs fused together.</p><p>Conjoined twins are caused by a fertilised egg beginning to split into two embryos a few weeks after conception, but the process stops before it is complete.</p><p>The most common type is twins joined at the chest or abdomen.</p><p>Separation surgery success depends on where the twins are joined.</p><p>Doctors can only tell which organs the siblings share, and therefore plan surgery, after they are born. </p><p>At least one twin survives 75 per cent of the time. </p><p>The most famous pair of conjoined twins was Chang and Eng Bunker, who  were born in 1811 and travelled with PT Barnum's circus. They were born in Siam and were known as the Siamese twins.</p><p> The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline. </p><p>Do you want to automatically post your MailOnline comments to your Facebook Timeline?</p><p>Your comment will be posted to MailOnline as usual.</p><p>Do you want to automatically post your MailOnline comments to your Facebook Timeline?</p><p> We will automatically post your comment and a link to the news story to your Facebook timeline at the same time it is posted on MailOnline. To do this we will link your MailOnline account with your Facebook account. We’ll ask you to confirm this for your first post to Facebook.</p><p>Part of the Daily Mail, The Mail on Sunday &amp; Metro Media Group</p>

    1 October 16, 2018
  • Scientists say runners only get about 1% slower each year between the ages of 40 and 80

    Scientists say runners only get about 1% slower each year between the ages of 40 and 80

    doing so when you're 80 may seem ambitious.</p><p>But, if you're worried it may take you hours to jog smaller distances as a pensioner, scientists have the perfect solution for you.</p><p>Researchers from Yale University have crafted a formula to help runners predict how much they will – or won't – slow down as they get older.</p><p>And physical decline is slower than you might think – without injury or illness, regular runners can expect to get just one per cent slower per year after they turn 40.</p><p>There is a steeper drop in fitness when someone reaches 80 – the fall in fitness between ages 80 and 90 is bigger than the entire period between 40 and 80</p><p>The maths does seem to suggest people have hit their peak by 40 and continue to train the same way afterwards, but shows age can be just a number. </p><p>Their calculations suggest a runner should actually only be around 40 per cent slower when they're 75 than they were at the age of 40.</p><p>For example, a 40-year-old who can run 5km (3.1 miles) in half an hour should only take 42 minutes to complete the same distance at the age of 75.</p><p>Dr Ray Fair and his colleague, Professor Edward Kaplan, worked out the formula based on marathon records among people in different age groups.</p><p>'The bottom line is that people are physically capable of running well for longer than we would expect, which is encouraging.</p><p>'Between 40 and 80 years of age, the time it takes someone to complete a run of a set distance only increases by about one per cent per year.'</p><p>To work out how much your running might slow down you only need to know your current age, the age you want to find out about, and your current running time.</p><p>Each age between 40 and 95 has a factor (all of which are listed in the table at the bottom of this story) to represent it in the calculation.</p><p>The factor for the age you're testing must be divided by the factor for your current age, then that number should be multiplied by your current time.</p><p>For example, if you're 50 and can run 10km (6.2 miles) in an hour, and want to know how fast you'll be when you're 80, you should do these sums:</p><p>To work out how fast you could be able to run in future you only need to know the age you are now, the age you want to know about and your current running time for any distance you choose.</p><p>The factor for the age you're testing must be divided by the factor for your current age, then that number should be multiplied by your current time: </p><p>For example, if you're 50 and can run 10km in an hour, and want to know how fast you'll be when you're 80, you should do these sums:</p><p>So you could expect to be able to run the same distance in 81 minutes – 1hr 21m.   </p><p>So you could expect to run the same distance in 81 minutes – 1hr 21m.</p><p>The calculator does assume a runner has reached their peak by the age of 40 and they continue to train as hard without being seriously injured or having a long illness.</p><p>In reality, people would find it harder to stick to losing just one per cent of fitness per year.</p><p>And there is a steeper drop when someone reaches 80 – the fall in fitness between ages 80 and 90 is bigger than the entire period between 40 and 80.</p><p>But, experts say, the figures show it is possible for people to stave off ageing by trying to keep fit.</p><p>A doctor at Imperial College NHS Trust in London, Frank Miskelly, told The Times: 'Until you hit 80 you should really feel as good as you did when you were 20.</p><p>'A lot of the decline that comes with age is actually due to the psychological approach to it.</p><p>'Older people are often told they need to slow down; sit around more and take fewer "risks", but those behavioural changes have more of an impact on fitness than age does.</p><p>'If you maintain a good level of exercise there’s no reason you shouldn’t be physically very capable until you’re 80.'</p><p>People become weaker as they get older because of a process called sarcopenia, which is when calcium leaks out of proteins inside the muscles.</p><p>This then triggers a chain reaction which eventually makes muscles less able to contract, and therefore weaker, a Columbia University study found in 2011.</p><p>The risk of disease is also higher and conditions like type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure and weaker breathing muscles can also make people less able.</p><p>Dr Fair and Professor Kaplan published their research in the journal The Review of Economics and Statistics.</p><p> The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline. </p><p>Do you want to automatically post your MailOnline comments to your Facebook Timeline?</p><p>Your comment will be posted to MailOnline as usual.</p><p>Do you want to automatically post your MailOnline comments to your Facebook Timeline?</p><p> We will automatically post your comment and a link to the news story to your Facebook timeline at the same time it is posted on MailOnline. To do this we will link your MailOnline account with your Facebook account. We’ll ask you to confirm this for your first post to Facebook.</p><p>Part of the Daily Mail, The Mail on Sunday &amp; Metro Media Group</p>

    1 October 16, 2018
  • Vaccine that protects against anthrax and plague has been developed amid fears of terror threats

    Vaccine that protects against anthrax and plague has been developed amid fears of terror threats

    oth anthrax and plague amid fears of terror threats.</p><p>The bacteria behind anthrax and the pneumonic plague are two of the deadliest pathogens that could be used in warfare. </p><p>Researchers from The Catholic University of America therefore created a single vaccine that could provide completion protection against the two diseases.</p><p>Tests on animals showed the vaccine worked, even if they were infected with a deadly dose of either of the two killer pathogens. </p><p>The bacteria behind anthrax and the pneumonic plague are two of the deadliest pathogens that could be used in warfare (stock)</p><p>'This dual anthrax-plague vaccine is a strong candidate for stockpiling against a potential bioterror attack involving either one or both of these biothreat agents,' scientists led by Dr Pan Tao said.</p><p>The Washington DC-based team combined toxins from the bacteria Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis, which cause anthrax and the pneumonic plague, respectively.</p><p>These toxins are known to stimulate an immune response when a person becomes infected.</p><p>When given to mice, rats and rabbits, the vaccine gave complete protection against both diseases, even when the animals were infected with doses that are known to deadly.</p><p>The jab is thought to stimulate immune cells to clear the bacteria from the body. It is unclear when it may be available.</p><p>The study was published in the journal of the American Society for Microbiology.</p><p>The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) classes anthrax and plague as the pathogens that pose the greatest threat to the national security of the US.</p><p>This comes after letters containing anthrax spores were sent to several news media offices and the Democratic Senators Tom Daschle and Patrick Leahy in 2001, just weeks after September 11.</p><p>Health officials are unsure how this year's outbreak began.</p><p>However, some believe it could be caused by the bubonic plague, which is endemic in the remote highlands of Madagascar.</p><p>If left untreated, it can lead to the pneumonic form, which is responsible for two thirds of the cases recorded so far in this year's outbreak.</p><p>Rats carry the Yersinia pestis bacteria that causes the plague, which is then passed onto their fleas.</p><p>Forest fires drive rats towards rural communities, which means residents are at risk of being bitten and infected. Local media reports suggest there has been an increase in the number of blazes in the woodlands.</p><p>Without antibiotics, the bubonic strain can spread to the lungs - where it becomes the more virulent pneumonic form.</p><p>Pneumonic, which can kill within 24 hours, can then be passed on through coughing, sneezing or spitting. </p><p>However, it can also be treated with antibiotics if caught in time. </p><p>Madagascar sees regular outbreaks of plague, which tend to start in September, with around 600 cases being reported each year on the island. </p><p>However, this year's outbreak has seen it reach the Indian Ocean island's two biggest cities, Antananarivo and Toamasina.</p><p>Experts warn the disease spreads quicker in heavily populated areas. </p><p>Known as Amerithrax, 22 people were infected, of which five died. A key suspect was the scientist Bruce Edwards Ivins, who killed himself in 2008.</p><p>Mr Ivins was a senior biodefense researcher at the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Maryland. </p><p>Both anthrax and plague can kill in as little as three days.</p><p>The most deadly form of anthrax is inhaled (pneumonic), which can quickly cause sufferers to cough up blood and even fall into comas.</p><p>If spores enter a person's lymph nodes, they can multiply and produce deadly toxins that spread throughout the body.</p><p>This can lead to life-threatening internal bleeding, as well as the death of tissues and major organs.</p><p>Although there is an FDA-approved anthrax vaccine, it can cause the airways to collapse and general circulation failure. </p><p>There no approved jab for plague, however, an experimental vaccine is sometimes used in the military.</p><p>It is unclear what the potential side effects of the newly-developed dual vaccine may be.  </p><p>The pneumonic form of plague is the most dangerous, which can cause patients to cough up blood and suffer sudden cardiac arrest.</p><p>The bacteria for both diseases are most often inhaled as infected droplets.</p><p>As well as protecting against a potential terror threat, the researchers believe the plague vaccine could be used globally.</p><p>The disease killed 209 people in Madagascar in an outbreak last year.  </p><p>Anthrax spores have been weaponised by at least five countries: Britain, Japan, the United States, Russia and Iraq</p><p>Anthrax is the name of the potentially-deadly disease caused by the spores of bacteria Bacillus anthracis.</p><p>As the disease can survive in harsh climates, Anthrax spores have been weaponised by at least five countries: Britain, Japan, the United States, Russia and Iraq.</p><p>The disease can be contracted by touching, inhaling or swallowing spores, which can lie dormant in water and soil for years.</p><p>It is most deadly, however, when the spores are inhaled, which is why the threat of a letter containing the disease is taken very seriously by authorities. </p><p>About 80 per cent of people who inhale the spores will die, in some cases even with immediate medical intervention. </p><p>Anthrax's first documented use as a weapon of warfare was by the Japanese in the 1930s, where thousands of prisoners of war were intentionally infected and died.</p><p>British trials of the disease on Gruinard Island in Scotland in 1942 severely contaminated the land for half a century, making it a no-go area until 1990.</p><p>The disease is particularly dangerous as its spores can be cultivated with minimal scientific training and special equipment.</p><p>Letters containing the deadly spores was mailed to several news outlets and the offices of two politicians in America, in what came to be known as the 2001 Anthrax attacks.</p><p>Biodefence researcher Dr Bruce Ivins (left) is the sole suspect of the 2001 Anthrax attacks, in whcih letters (right) containing the disease were mailed across the USA</p><p>As a result, 22 were infected and five people died after just a few grams who used across all the letters.</p><p>In 2008, biodefence researcher Dr Bruce Ivins was named as a suspect but committed suicide before he could face any charges.   </p><p>Once inside the body they become active and start producing toxins, which cause the disease and manifest and spread. </p><p>Symptoms range from blisters to shortness of breath or diarrhea, depending on how it enters the body.</p><p>The vast majority of cases are caused by skin contact. This is the least deadly form of the disease, with 75 per cent of patients surviving without treatment. </p><p>Anthrax naturally infects many species of grazing mammals such as sheep, cattle and goats, which are infected through ingestion of soil contaminated by B. anthracis spores. The spores may remain dormant for many years.</p><p>Infection generally occurs 1 to 7 days after exposure but occasionally, if inhaled, cases may present 2 to 3 months later.</p><p> The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline. </p><p>Do you want to automatically post your MailOnline comments to your Facebook Timeline?</p><p>Your comment will be posted to MailOnline as usual.</p><p>Do you want to automatically post your MailOnline comments to your Facebook Timeline?</p><p> We will automatically post your comment and a link to the news story to your Facebook timeline at the same time it is posted on MailOnline. To do this we will link your MailOnline account with your Facebook account. We’ll ask you to confirm this for your first post to Facebook.</p><p>Part of the Daily Mail, The Mail on Sunday &amp; Metro Media Group</p>

    1 October 16, 2018
  • Mother-of-two's anger over her 'unbearable' botched tattoo removal

    Mother-of-two's anger over her 'unbearable' botched tattoo removal

    ft arm</p><p>A mother-of-two claims she looked she had been attacked by 'flesh-eating bugs' after she had a tattoo removed.</p><p>Stephanie Lynn, 28, had a skull and roses inked on her left arm but wanted to get the 'embarrassing' art removed before her wedding next year.</p><p>Now Miss Lynn said she may be forced to postpone her wedding as the permanent scars she has been left with have ruined her confidence.</p><p>But after just two visits to the clinic, based at Royston Dental Practice, Miss Lynn claims her arm was 'fried' and became severely infected.</p><p>Her hand swelled to four times its normal size, she couldn't straighten her arm and was left with agonising pus-filled blisters.</p><p>Miss Lynn, who underwent the laser removal surgery in July and September, said: 'When I got the tattoo I was just young and stupid.</p><p>'I went to get it removed it and had a patch test which went fine. </p><p>'I put numbing cream on a couple of hours before it and when I got my first lasering I really didn't notice much.</p><p>'But the second time I went, it was just horrific. I knew something wasn't right.'</p><p>She added: 'The girl who was doing it left me in so much pain. It felt like she was burning my arm, a completely different feeling compared to the first time I did it.</p><p>'It was unbearable, my arm was on fire. The girl put soothing gel over the top but after two days, my arm got swollen, it was like four times its size.</p><p>'I couldn't straighten my arm. I know it's normal to have swelling but not like this, it was worse.</p><p>'It's like an electric shock went through my arm. It looked like flesh-eating bugs had attacked it - it looked horrible.' </p><p>Her hand swelled to four times its normal size, she couldn't straighten her arm and was left with agonising pus-filled blisters (pictured: her swollen hand)</p><p>Miss Lynn said she may be forced to postpone her wedding as the permanent scars she has been left with have ruined her confidence (pictured, her arm as it is now)</p><p>Miss Lynn, who underwent the laser removal surgery in July and September, said: 'When I got the tattoo I was just young and stupid' </p><p>Miss Lynn claimed that when she reported the infection to Fresh Faced she was told to go to their pharmacy (pictured, her arm as it is now)</p><p>Miss Lynn described the pain after her second appointment as being like an 'electric shock' that went through my arm</p><p>Miss Lynn went to the GP to get help for the excruciating pain and was prescribed antibiotics for the infection. It is unclear what the infection was.</p><p>She later called NHS24, and was referred to a nearby medical centre where doctors confirmed the infection.</p><p>Miss Lynn claimed that when she reported the infection to Fresh Faced she was told to go to their pharmacy.</p><p>There she was given epaderm cream to keep her skin moisturised and dermol wash. She said she followed all the correct aftercare instructions.</p><p>Miss Lynn went to the GP to get help for the excruciating pain and was prescribed antibiotics for the infection (pictured, her swollen arm after the laser surgery removal)</p><p>Miss Lynn claimed she has emailed Fresh Faced back and forth and has requested their tattoo removalist certificates and their insurance details (pictured, her arm as it is now)</p><p>But the mother to Chloe, eight, and three-year-old Hollie, alleged that she has not heard back from the firm in three weeks (pictured, her arm after her first appointment)</p><p>She said: 'This has completely ruined my confidence. I'm always wearing long sleeve tops now' (pictured, her arm after her second appointment)</p><p>But the mother to Chloe, eight, and three-year-old Hollie, alleged that she has not heard back from the firm in three weeks.</p><p>And now she fears she may need to postpone her wedding.</p><p>She said: 'This has completely ruined my confidence. I'm always wearing long sleeve tops now.</p><p>'This has been so horrible, even driving my kids to school has been so difficult - something as simple as changing gears in your car.</p><p>'I just don't want anyone else to experience what I've gone through. My youngest daughter didn't want to come near me because of the scarring.</p><p>Fresh Faced was contacted for a comment but a spokeswoman has said they cannot comment on the issue. </p><p>Miss Lynn said: 'This has been so horrible, even driving my kids to school has been so difficult - something as simple as changing gears in your car' (pictured, her arm her appointment)</p><p>Miss Lynn has not been told by doctors what the infection was - but was given a course of antibiotics for her swelling and blisters (pictured after her second appointment)</p><p>Miss Lynn's arm is pictured after her second appointment at Fresh Faced</p><p>Miss Lynn said: 'My youngest daughter didn't want to come near me because of the scarring' (pictured, the scarring after her second appointment)</p><p>Miss Lynn's arm is pictured after her second appointment at Fresh Faced in Glasgow</p><p> The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline. </p><p>Do you want to automatically post your MailOnline comments to your Facebook Timeline?</p><p>Your comment will be posted to MailOnline as usual.</p><p>Do you want to automatically post your MailOnline comments to your Facebook Timeline?</p><p> We will automatically post your comment and a link to the news story to your Facebook timeline at the same time it is posted on MailOnline. To do this we will link your MailOnline account with your Facebook account. We’ll ask you to confirm this for your first post to Facebook.</p><p>Part of the Daily Mail, The Mail on Sunday &amp; Metro Media Group</p>

    1 October 16, 2018
  • Nurse, 22, lands a job at the same hospital where she was treated for leukaemia

    Nurse, 22, lands a job at the same hospital where she was treated for leukaemia

    ospital where she thought she would die of a rare form of leukaemia five years ago.</p><p>Brooke Evans, from Redditch in Worcestershire, needed eight months of chemotherapy to recover from lymphoblastic leukaemia when she was 17 in 2013.</p><p>Now in remission herself, Miss Evans hopes her experience will help her relate to her patients better and give them hope of recovery.</p><p>Brooke Evans was diagnosed with lymphoblastic leukaemia when she was 17 in 2013 and now has a job as a nurse at the hospital where she had chemotherapy</p><p>Miss Evans recovered from her own cancer after eight months of gruelling treatment and is currently in remission.</p><p>Inspired by her experience as a patient, the 22-year-old recently qualified as a nurse after beginning her studies at the University of Worcester in 2015.</p><p>Miss Evans said: 'I can have lot of empathy and sympathy with my patients because I understand on a personal level what they're going through.</p><p>'I hope that if I tell patients my story it'll inspire them and keep them going. I hope they realise that it's not all bad.</p><p>'There's not a day that goes by that I don't think about it, I just think about how lucky I am.' </p><p>Miss Evans said she thought she was going to die when she had lymphoblastic leukaemia, a cancer of the white blood cells, but she is now in remission and has completed a degree and landed a job since</p><p>Miss Evans needed eight months of chemotherapy and had to take a year off school because of her illness, meaning she missed out on going to university when all her friends went</p><p>Miss Evans had to take a year off school to have her treatment and said she missed out because her friends were starting university but she was too ill.</p><p>'It was hard because all my friends who'd I'd gone to school with were at university,' she said.</p><p>'I came across as a troublesome teenager who was in denial about what has happening.'</p><p>Lymphoblastic leukaemia is a rare type of cancer and only affects around 810 people in the UK each year.</p><p>The disease causes bone marrow to release white blood cells into the body too soon, reducing the number of healthy red blood cells and making people weak. </p><p>But she soon managed to complete her nursing degree and landed a job working among the same people who saved her life less than five years earlier. </p><p>It was that experience of facing the possibility of dying herself – and she did believe she would die – which motivated her to become a nurse.   </p><p>And the 22-year-old was overwhelmed by emotion before she was due to go in to start her first shift.</p><p>Miss Evans said: 'The hospital were amazing. The nurses and doctors tried their absolute best.</p><p>'That's why I decided to work there, because I saw what they were doing first-hand.</p><p>Miss Evans, who now works as a haematology nurse on the same ward she was treated on, hopes her own experience of the deadly disease will help her relate to other patients and give them hope for their recovery</p><p>Miss Evans (pictured when she was having cancer treatment five years ago) says she cried the night before her first shift because she was so overwhelmed with emotion before going back to where she had believed she would die as a teenager</p><p>'I cried the night before my first shift. It was a mixture of emotions to do with my past because at one point I didn't know if I'd get here.</p><p>'I thought I was going to die so putting on my uniform ready to go work was a big deal.'</p><p>Miss Evans, who has only been working in the hospital full-time for a week, said she's already bumped into a few familiar faces.</p><p>She added: 'I'm working with the same doctors that treated me and working with patients who have the same condition.</p><p>'At first it was weird. Sometimes i feel a little bit embarrassed.</p><p>'But it's quite funny now to see them again, and they're really happy to see that I've gone full circle.'</p><p>Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is a type of blood cancer that starts from young white blood cells in the bone marrow.</p><p>There are around 810 new cases in the UK every year. In the US, ALL affects approximately 1.7 adults per 100,000. </p><p>Anyone can develop ALL, however, it mainly affects younger people.</p><p>Many ALL symptoms are vague and flu-like, such as: </p><p>Risks for developing ALL include exposure to radiation, smoking, being overweight and having a weak immune system.</p><p>Research suggests being breastfed and exposed to childhood infections may reduce a person's risk.</p><p>The main ALL treatment is chemotherapy. Patients may also have radiotherapy, steroids or bone marrow transplants.</p><p>Do you want to automatically post your MailOnline comments to your Facebook Timeline?</p><p>Your comment will be posted to MailOnline as usual.</p><p>Do you want to automatically post your MailOnline comments to your Facebook Timeline?</p><p> We will automatically post your comment and a link to the news story to your Facebook timeline at the same time it is posted on MailOnline. To do this we will link your MailOnline account with your Facebook account. We’ll ask you to confirm this for your first post to Facebook.</p><p>Part of the Daily Mail, The Mail on Sunday &amp; Metro Media Group</p>

    1 October 16, 2018

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