Total lunar eclipse 2018: How to watch the July 'blood moon' live
A total lunar eclipse will turn the moon blood red today, but even if the celestial show isn’t visible from your corner of the world, there are still ways to watch the eclipse live.
“This eclipse is special because just by chance it happens that the moon will cross the shadow of the Earth almost along its diameter, which makes the eclipse a few minutes longer than usual,” Francisco Diego, an astronomer at University College London in the U.K., told NBC News MACH in an email.
During totality, which begins at around 3:30 p.m. EDT (19:30 UTC), the moon will be immersed in Earth's shadow and will be “illuminated by red light filtered by the [Earth's] atmosphere,” Diego said. For this eclipse, Diego says skywatchers can expect to see a “bright red-orange moon."
If you happen to be in the Eastern Hemisphere, you’re in luck. According to NASA, the best places to witness the celestial event from start to finish are eastern Africa, the Middle East, India and central Asia. Skywatchers in southern Africa and the Middle East will be able to see totality around midnight local time. Viewers in central Asia will see the moon pass into Earth’s shadow at 10:44 p.m. local time and can expect the eclipse to peak at around midnight.
The sky show will be partially visible as the moon rises just after sunset in parts of Europe, West Africa and South America. In eastern Asia, Australia, and parts of the western Pacific, the eclipse will be visible before sunrise on Saturday (July 28), as the moon sets.
Lunar eclipses occur up to three times a year, so if you miss this week's sky show, there will be other opportunities in the future. The next total lunar eclipse will happen on Jan. 21, 2019, and will be visible from North America, South America, and parts of Africa, Europe and the central Pacific. The period of totality for this eclipse will last 1 hour and 2 minutes. Skywatchers in South America, Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia will also be able to see a partial lunar eclipse on July 16, 2019.
July 27, 2018
om the Xichang Satellite Launch Center in the southwestern province of Sichuan. Plans call for Chang'e 4, which carries both a lander and a lunar rover, to touch down on the moon in early January.</p><p>"Anything we land on the moon is significant, but this one is especially so," David Paige, a planetary scientist at the University of California, Los Angeles, said of the mission.</p><p>The lander and rover are each equipped with cameras. The rover also sports a ground-penetrating radar instrument designed to help scientists gain an understanding of the moon’s geological history as well as a spectrometer to study its chemical composition.</p><p>Chang’e 4 won't be returning any moon rocks to Earth, but a successor mission planned for 2019, Chang'e 5, will. This would be the first time that materials from the moon have been brought back to Earth since the Soviet Union's Luna 24 mission in 1976.</p><p>"These missions are taking place in rapid succession, and that also demonstrates the resolve of this program to move forward toward the eventual goal of putting Chinese astronauts on the lunar surface," Bradley Jolliff, a planetary scientist at Washington University in St. Louis, told NBC News MACH in an email.</p><p>China has also announced plans to launch a rover to Mars in 2020, as well as additional crewed missions to low-Earth orbit.</p><p>China, the U.S. and Russia are the only nations to have successfully landed spacecraft on the moon.</p>
ritten, or redistributed. ©2018 FOX News Network, LLC. All rights reserved. All market data delayed 20 minutes. </p><p>Trying to sort out the origins of these blueberries has always involved studying similar-looking spherical formations here on Earth. New research takes its inspiration from these terrestrial analogs to offer a new idea of the chemistry that may have gone into whipping up these Martian blueberries. In turn, this research helps reveal what ancient Mars may have looked like.</p><p>And if scientists can parse out precisely how the blueberries formed, that may help us understand what Mars was like back when the features formed — and what sort of life could have theoretically thrived in those circumstances, Horgan said.</p><p>So, the team behind the new research traveled to two different terrestrial destinations in search of rock formations that resemble Martian blueberries: Utah and Mongolia. These formations aren't identical to those on Mars, which are about a tenth the size of the Earthly equivalents. Our planet's formations are also less orderly than the Martian versions. "They're all blobbed together. They're different sizes," Horgan said of the terrestrial features.</p><p>But it's much easier to get to Utah and Mongolia than to Mars, so scientists use these features despite the imperfect comparison. The researchers found that the formations seemed to have been built around cores of a mineral called calcite, with iron-rich material in only the outer shell. "That moment [of discovery], it was very exciting," geochemist co-authors Hidekazu Yoshida of Nagoya University and Hitoshi Hasegawa of Kochi University in Japan, wrote in an email to Space.com.</p><p>Based on those observations in the field and chemical modeling, the scientists suggested that floods of iron-rich, gently acidic water washed over the original calcite structures. Unlike the terrestrial versions, Martian blueberries seem to be made of hematite all the way through, no longer sporting any calcite heart. But that could point to a long period of overwash that ate through all the calcite, the researchers said.</p><p>The second potential implication would relate to another long-standing debate about Mars — what happened to its once-thick atmosphere. The authors in the new study argued that this atmosphere could have gone into the carbonate ions locked in calcite precursors to the blueberries.</p><p>He said he also worries that Earth's formations aren't similar enough to those on Mars for scientists to learn about the blueberries. But Ruff didn't dismiss the new paper. "I'm intrigued by this idea," he said. "The formation of these little concretions on Earth and certainly on Mars has always been a bit of a mystery, and there's multiple ideas about how you form these things."</p><p>"Going back to places on Mars with NASA is not something people want to do. They want to go to new places," Ruff said. Nevertheless, he said he isn't giving up hope that the new rover could solve the blueberry mystery. "Maybe we'll get lucky and see something like this with the 2020 rover."</p><p>Whatever the nuances of blueberry chemistry turn out to be, the new paper is a reminder of the vast time scales — and the potential complexity such time scales entail — involved in Martian geology, Horgan said. "Time can play a really important role in the minerals that we see," Horgan said. "We should be careful. There could have been multiple things that happened to these rocks."</p><p>This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed. ©2018 FOX News Network, LLC. All rights reserved. All market data delayed 20 minutes.</p>
ar side of the moon.</p><p>A rocket carrying the Chang’e-4 lunar lander is to blast off at about 2:15 a.m. local time on Saturday from Xichang Satellite Launch Center in southern China. (In the United States, it will still be midday Friday — 1:15 p.m. Eastern time.)</p><p>Exactly when it will set down at its destination has not yet been announced — possibly in early January — but Chang’e-4 will provide the first close-up look at a part of the moon that is eternally out of view from Earth.</p><p>Chang’e-4 includes two main parts: the main lander weighing about 2,400 pounds and a 300-pound rover. By comparison, NASA’s Opportunity rover on Mars weighs about 400 pounds, and the Curiosity rover there is much bigger, at 2,000 pounds.</p><p>The spacecraft is largely a clone of Chang’e-3, which landed on the moon in 2013. Indeed, Chang’e-4 was built as the backup in case the first attempt failed. With the success — the first soft landing of any spacecraft on the moon since 1976 — the Chinese outfitted Chang’e-4 with a different set of instruments and decided to send it to a different location.</p><p>The rover will land in the 110-mile-wide Von Kármán crater. It is on the far side of the moon, which is always facing away from Earth. (The moon is what planetary scientists call “tidally locked” to the rotation of the Earth. That is, its period of rotation — its day — is the same as the time it takes to make one orbit around Earth.)</p><p>The crater is within an area known as the South Pole-Aitken basin, a gigantic, 1,600-mile-wide crater at the bottom of the moon, which has a mineralogy distinct from other locations. That may reflect materials from the inside of the moon that were brought up by the impact that created the basin.</p><p>The far side is also considerably more mountainous than the near side for reasons not yet understood.</p><p>The suite of instruments on the rover and the lander include cameras, ground-penetrating radar and spectrometers to help identify the composition of rocks and dirt in the area. And China’s space agency has collaborated with other countries. One instrument was developed at Kiel University in Germany; another was provided by the Swedish Institute of Space Physics.</p><p>The instruments will probe the structure of the rocks beneath the spacecraft, study the effects of the solar wind striking the lunar surface. Chang’e-4 will also test the ability of making radio astronomy observations from the far side of the moon, without the effects of noise and interference from Earth.</p><p>According to the Xinhua news agency, Chang’e-4 is also carrying an intriguing biology experiment to see if plant seeds will germinate and silkworm eggs will hatch in the moon’s low gravity.</p><p>Because the moon blocks radio signals from our planet, the Chinese launched a satellite, called Queqiao, in May. It is circling high over the far side of the moon, and will relay messages between Earth and the Chang’e-4 lander.</p><p>There has been no announcement of live coverage of the launch. If The Times learns of a live video stream from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center in southwest China, we will add one ahead of the launch.</p><p>Zhang Xiaoping, an associate professor from Space Science Institute/Lunar and Planetary Science Laboratory of Macau University of Science and Technology, said that the spacecraft would follow the Chang’e-3’s trajectory. That means it would arrive in three to five days and then orbit the moon for several days (13 in the case of Chang’e-3) while preparing for the landing, he said.</p><p>The first new moon of 2019 is Jan. 6. That’s when you cannot see the moon because the dark side — the side that is in shadow facing away from the sun — is facing Earth. And when the near side of the moon is dark, the far side is awash in bright sunshine.</p><p>Chinese officials have talked about Chang’e-4 in public, but their interactions with journalists more resemble the carefully managed strategy used by the Soviet program during the Cold War rather than the more open publicity by NASA and many other space agencies. That way, the Chinese, like the Soviets, could boast about the successes and downplay any failures.</p><p>In Chinese mythology, Chang’e is the goddess of the moon. Other missions have been named after her, too.</p><p>Chang’e-1 and 2 went into orbit around the moon but did not land. Chang’e-1 was launched in 2007. Chang’e-2 followed in 2010.</p><p>The next step in China’s moon program is for the Chang’e-5 robotic spacecraft to land on the moon and then bring rock samples back to Earth for additional study.</p><p>Chang’e-5 was supposed to head to the moon before Chang’e-4, but a launch failure of the large Chinese rocket needed to carry it to space delayed the mission until at least 2019.</p><p>Next year, the Indian government is planning to launch a mission, Chandrayaan-2, that includes an orbiter, a lander and a rover. SpaceIL, an Israeli team that was a finalist in the Google Lunar X Prize, is also still aiming to send a robotic lander to the moon early next year, even though the $20 million prize has expired.</p><p>Jim Bridenstine, the NASA administrator, has praised the Chang’e-4 mission as exciting, and at the International Astronautical Congress in Bremen, Germany in October, talked of possible collaboration with the Chinese space agency. Federal laws limit any NASA interaction with the Chinese.</p>
ritten, or redistributed. ©2018 FOX News Network, LLC. All rights reserved. All market data delayed 20 minutes. </p><p>The largest extinction event in Earth's history was caused by global warming - and our planet may be in for another enormous wipeout, scientists warn.</p><p>Continued climate change could lead to a repeat of the Great Dying, which killed off 96 percent of life on Earth around 250 million years ago.</p><p>Long before the dawn of the dinosaurs, Earth was populated with plants and animals that were mostly obliterated after a series of massive volcanic eruptions in Siberia.</p><p>The mass extinction, triggered 252 million years ago, essentially set life on our planet back to square one, and was followed by a period spanning millions of years in which life had to multiply and evolve once more.</p><p>Now researchers have shown that the Great Dying, which killed 96 percent of Earth's ocean creatures, was caused by global warming.</p><p>As volcanoes belched greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, Earth's oceans heated up, and its warming waters could no longer hold enough oxygen for life to survive.</p><p>Scientists at the University of Washington warned that man-made climate change could trigger a similar event within the next few hundred years.</p><p>"Under a business-as-usual emissions scenarios, by 2100 warming in the upper ocean will have approached 20 percent of warming in the late Permian, and by the year 2300 it will reach between 35 and 50 percent," said study author Justin Penn.</p><p>"This study highlights the potential for a mass extinction arising from a similar mechanism under anthropogenic climate change."</p><p>The Washington team ran computer models to simulate the effects of the Great Dying on Earth's ancient oceans.</p><p>They showed that sulfur and other greenhouse gases pumped into the atmosphere starved Earth's oceans of 80 percent of their oxygen.</p><p>This is because as the oceans heated up, creatures and plants used up more oxygen as their metabolism increased.</p><p>About half the oceans' seafloor, mostly at deeper depths, became completely oxygen-free and uninhabitable to almost all life on Earth.</p><p>The situation in the late Permian - increasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere that create warmer temperatures on Earth - is similar to today, researchers warned.</p><p>"This is the first time that we have made a mechanistic prediction about what caused the extinction that can be directly tested with the fossil record," Mr. Penn said.</p><p>"It allows us to make predictions about the causes of extinction in the future."</p><p>This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed. ©2018 FOX News Network, LLC. All rights reserved. All market data delayed 20 minutes.</p>
ritten, or redistributed. ©2018 FOX News Network, LLC. All rights reserved. All market data delayed 20 minutes. </p><p>The government space agency shared the photos to Twitter and on its website, as it gets ready to explore the Elysium Planitia, the plain where the lander touched down on Nov. 26.</p><p>"Raise your hand if you’re in this new photo from #Mars!" NASA wrote in one tweet. "These two tiny chips contain the names of more than 2.4 million people who signed up to fly with me. We’re ON MARS, you guys. You’re all honorary Martians!"</p><p>In addition to taking pictures, the nearly 6-foot arm will be used to pick up science instruments from the lander's deck. The photos will help the mission team decide where to put the lander's seismometer and heat flow probe — "the only instruments ever to be robotically placed on the surface of another planet," NASA said.</p><p>There's also another camera on the lander, which cost $828 million, known as the Instrument Context Camera. This camera is under the lander's deck and, even though it was covered, dust managed to get on the lens, Tom Hoffman of JPL, InSight's project manager, added.</p><p>"While this is unfortunate, it will not affect the role of the camera, which is to take images of the area in front of the lander where our instruments will eventually be placed," Hoffman said.</p><p>Since the InSight lander set down on the Red Planet a week and a half ago, ending a journey that lasted six months and covered more than 300 million miles, it's been quite busy for NASA.</p><p>"Over the past week and a half, mission engineers have been testing those instruments and spacecraft systems, ensuring they're in working order," NASA said in the statement. "A couple instruments are even recording data: a drop in air pressure, possibly caused by a passing dust devil, was detected by the pressure sensor. This, along with a magnetometer and a set of wind and temperature sensors, are part of a package called the Auxiliary Payload Sensor Subsystem, which will collect meteorological data."</p><p>The InSight lander entered Mars' atmosphere just shortly after 2:40 p.m. EST on Nov. 26 and touched the surface at approximately 2:54 p.m. EST. The last part of the journey was the most harrowing, with NASA calling it "seven minutes of terror" due to the agency's inability to control the landing of the spacecraft.</p><p>As the lander descended, it was hit with extreme temperatures, speeds and forces. In an attempt to prevent any damage to the craft, NASA chose a "vanilla ice cream" landing site, the Elysium Planitia, which is flat and featureless.</p><p>The unmanned probe, which is built by Lockheed Martin, will dig deeper into the planet than anything that's come before.</p><p>NASA’s last landing on Mars took place in 2012 when the Curiosity Rover reached the Red Planet. The Rover, which has more than 12 miles on its odometer, is currently the only thing operating on the Martian surface.</p><p>The space agency's older, smaller Opportunity was roaming around up there until June, when a global dust storm knocked it out of service. Flight controllers haven't given up hope yet that it will be revived.</p><p>Mars looms ever larger in America’s space future.</p><p>NASA’s long-term goal is to send a manned mission to Mars in the 2030s. However, former astronaut Buzz Aldrin thinks that a slightly later target date of 2040 is more realistic. In an interview in 2016, the Gemini 12 and Apollo 11 astronaut told Fox News that by 2040, astronauts could have visited Mars’ moon Phobos, which could serve as a sort of stepping stone to the Red Planet.</p><p>This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed. ©2018 FOX News Network, LLC. All rights reserved. All market data delayed 20 minutes.</p>
limate leadership at home and the unwillingness of the U.S. to engage with China,” said Joanna Lewis, a China specialist at Georgetown University. “The rest of the world looks to the U.S. and China for leadership, and it has become clear that, as the alliance has waned, global momentum to address climate change has slowed.” </p><p>It’s hard to imagine a worse time for the world’s two behemoths — the United States, traditionally representing the rich world in climate negotiations, and China, representing the developing countries — to be locked in a cycle of intense distrust at the highest levels.</p><p>For China’s part — even though its emissions have grown in the last two years, mainly because of continued coal use — the country is on track to meet its modest, self-imposed Paris target, which is to reach peak emissions by 2030. In fact, it appears on track to do so ahead of schedule, according to independent analysts. It is also ramping up renewable energy sources faster than any country in the world. The emissions intensity of its economy, geared to manufacture goods for the rest of the world, is declining. </p><p>At the same time though, coal plants have not closed down as fast as some had expected. Much more worrying, China is exporting coal technology abroad, with its powerful state-owned companies proposing to build coal-fired power plants from Kenya to Pakistan, effectively exporting its carbon footprint.</p><p>“They plan their work and work their plan,” Mr. Gore said. “I expect them to continue on the journey they mapped out regardless of what the U.S. does.”</p><p>So far, there is no evidence that China is reversing course. Still, the United States posture, and the concerns over a continued slowdown of the Chinese economy give ballast to Chinese promoters of heavy industry, some China analysts say, putting President Xi Jinping under considerable pressure. </p><p>“People are widely concerned that this trade dispute will lead to some unemployment,” said Zou Ji, the Beijing-based head of the Energy Foundation of China, a group that calls on China to transition away from fossil fuels to clean energy sources. “I feel the pace of emissions abatement could become slower.” </p><p>Three key issues pit the United States and China against each other in the climate negotiations, where American negotiators are participating pending the country’s formal exit at the end of 2020. </p><p>First, the United States wants robust rules across the board for all countries to account for their own emissions and be subject to outside scrutiny. China insists on different reporting rules for developing countries. China has India on its side on this demand, though not other vulnerable poor countries, who are wary of looser rules for China. </p><p>“We are basically designing, in Katowice, a whole set of rules that will bind China but that will not cover the United States,” said Mr. Li of Greenpeace Asia. “It creates a fundamental sense of unfairness in the Chinese mind.”</p><p>Second, the United States, under the Trump administration, has pulled back from helping poor countries adapt to the ravages of climate change. China, which considers itself the leader of the world’s developing countries, is goading the rich world to pony up — and be held accountable for it.</p><p>And third, perhaps most importantly, the test for China is whether, in the face of an American retreat, it will ramp up its ambition to cut emissions in the coming years. </p><p>The consequences for the world’s 7.6 billion people are enormous. </p><p>“It takes the pressure off of greater ambition and faster action,” said Alex Wang, a University of California Los Angeles law professor who follows China’s environmental policy, of the United States-China tensions. “If you’re coming from the perspective that we’re already way behind, then the current dynamic is bad.”</p>
ritten, or redistributed. ©2018 FOX News Network, LLC. All rights reserved. All market data delayed 20 minutes. </p><p>A sinuous swamp salamander with spots like a leopard and Christmas-tree-shaped fronds growing from its head hid from scientists for decades. But researchers have finally described this elusive and two-legged aquatic oddity.</p><p>To determine if the spotted siren was indeed a new species, the researchers needed specimens. Steen caught one in 2009, and it wasn't until 2014 when scientists captured three more.</p><p>"This is a big animal, and it's only being described in 2018. There's probably a lot more species for us to learn about — and we should do it quick, before these things disappear."</p><p>This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed. ©2018 FOX News Network, LLC. All rights reserved. All market data delayed 20 minutes.</p>
only portrayed. “They definitely do not suck,” says Daryl Haggard, an astrophysicist at McGill University in Montreal. “A black hole just sits there, passively. Things can fall onto it, just as meteors can fall to Earth, but it doesn’t pull stuff in.”</p><p>The force of gravity governs the motion of planets, stars and galaxies, and it’s responsible for creating black holes, too.</p><p>Stars shine because of the nuclear fusion reactions taking place in their cores. The reactions create an outward pressure that counters the inward pull of gravity. As a result, the star neither expands nor contracts. But when a star’s fuel supply is exhausted and the outward pressure stops, gravity causes the star to shrink.</p><p>Why can’t anything escape from a black hole? The key is something called escape velocity: the speed needed to overcome the gravitational tug of a particular star or planet and move out into space.</p><p>Earth’s escape velocity is about seven miles per second, or about 25,000 miles an hour. Throw a baseball into the air and it falls back down because its speed is lower than Earth’s escape velocity; if your fastball exceeded 25,000 miles an hour, it would never come down.</p><p>Astronomers are still debating how these colossal black holes form. One possibility is that they’re the result of mergers between star-size black holes.</p><p>Anyone unlucky enough to fall into a black hole would be torn apart by the intense gravity — stretched like spaghetti, as Stephen Hawking famously put it — with his or her mass added to the black hole’s.</p><p>Other physicists question this view of the interior of a black hole, arguing that a more comprehensive physical theory — one that combines Einstein’s theory of gravity with quantum theory — might do away with singularities.</p><p>Astronomers have learned a great deal about black holes by watching what happens to gas and dust that fall into them. Such material can reach very high temperatures, causing it to emit light at various wavelengths.</p>
part of President Trump’s political base, since it could have restricted how much pollution from chemical fertilizers and pesticides could seep into water on their property.</p><p>“The previous administration’s 2015 rule wasn’t about water quality,” the memo says. “It was about power — power in the hands of the federal government over farmers, developers and landowners.”</p><p>The memo, which did not include full details of the proposal, described a less stringent, more industry-friendly version of the rule, known as Waters of the United States. The revised rule would exclude from regulation streams and tributaries that do not run year round. It would also exclude wetlands that are not directly connected to larger bodies of water.</p><p>Mr. Trump won cheers from rural audiences on the presidential campaign trail when he vowed to roll back the Obama rule. One of his first actions in office was to sign an executive order directing his E.P.A. chief to repeal and replace the rule.</p><p>Real estate developers and golf course owners — businesses in which Mr. Trump worked for decades — were also among the chief opponents of the earlier rule, since it could have limited how they used their land. “The opponents of Waters of the United States are going to be pleased with this new rule,” said Myron Ebell, who led Mr. Trump’s E.P.A. transition team and who viewed the memo. “It looks like it’s going to significantly reduce the federal jurisdictional footprint on these waters, to significantly below what it was before the rule.”</p><p>Environmentalists have denounced the proposed change as a threat to public health that will lead to more pollution in American waters, even as Mr. Trump has repeatedly vowed his commitment to “crystal-clean water.”</p><p>The Obama-era rule was developed jointly by the E.P.A. and the Army Corps of Engineers under the authority of the 1972 Clean Water Act, which gave the federal government broad power to limit pollution in major bodies of water, as well as smaller bodies that flowed into them. But two Supreme Court decisions, in 2001 and 2006, created legal confusion about whether the federal government had the authority to regulate the smaller streams and headwaters, and other water sources such as wetlands.</p><p>The Obama rule sought to clarify that authority, allowing the government to once again limit pollution in those smaller bodies of water. It would also have allowed regulation, in some cases, of pollution into so-called ephemeral streams that do not run year round, and into wetlands that do not directly flow into larger bodies of water.</p><p>Opponents of the Obama rule sued to block that plan. Federal courts have halted its implementation in 28 states, though in recent months it has taken effect in the other 22.</p><p>The Trump administration’s water proposal will be opened for a public comment period, and it could still be revised or changed before it is finalized, most likely at some point in 2019.</p>
ritten, or redistributed. ©2018 FOX News Network, LLC. All rights reserved. All market data delayed 20 minutes. </p><p>Do you find New York City's subway system confusing? Ever wonder why there are different colors for each train line and how they came to be? Here's a brief history behind America's oldest subterranean transit system.</p><p>New York City, 1932 - at that point, the New York City subway has been around for a whopping 28 years. With 472 station stops, around 800 miles of track, and over 20 different subway lines, one might be shocked to hear that in 1932, the NYC subway system was attempting to label all 27 subway lines with only 3 colors. To even get close to understanding how NYC subways went from 3 colors to today’s 10, one would have to speak to a man named Peter Lloyd.</p><p>Lloyd is an amateur historian of the New York City subway system. He not only knows the system’s ins and outs he also knows the story of the creative geniuses that brought the system to where it is today. The New York City subway system has a long and outstanding history, but in order to learn where the color-coding system originated, we need to talk about 2 key players.</p><p>First and foremost, there is Raleigh D’Adamo, winner of a contest that the New York City Transit Authority held in 1964, and technically the creator of the modern color-coding system that exists within the NYC subway system today.</p><p>In 1964, the NYCTA contest called on graphic designers to attempt to design a way to organize the extremely disorganized subway system. D’Adamo wasn’t a graphic designer by profession, but he was a subway map guru and a man with an idea, so he entered the contest and to his surprise, he was one of three winners.</p><p>Although not the focus of the contest, his background in practicing law came in handy; D’Adamo says, “to explain it [his idea] I wrote a 19-page report comparing New York City’s system with other systems like London and Paris.” D’Adamo went on to explain that the key phrase that caught the eyes of the judges was, “It’s clear that the maps of the New York City subway system are using too few colors to do too much work.” All in all, D’Adamo's idea was that every line would be assigned a color, and so the modern coding system was born.</p><p>This organizational strategy worked for a few years but having a map with over 20 colors on it eventually started to confuse people. This is where John Tauranac enters the picture. Today, Tauranac is a professor at NYU, but back in the day, he was the leader of a key team in the MTA when the NYC subway map was going through some important changes. To simplify the color system, Tauranac and his team decided to incorporate something called “trunk lines.”</p><p>Trunk lines made it so subway lines that ran on the same avenue were all labeled the same color. Lloyd explains it best when he says, “Lexington Avenue has 3 lines running down it, the 4, 5 and 6. Now back in the 60’s and 70’s each of those routes had its own color. John Tauranac’s idea was to paint those 3 routes the same color and that meant he can draw a single line instead of 3 lines, saving space.” This trunk line system is still in effect, and New York City has John Tauranac to thank for the easy-to-read maps of today. </p><p>New York City is home to the largest rapid transit system in the world. However, when it comes to reliability, it finds itself towards the bottom of the list. This may change, but after understanding the rich and longstanding history of the NYC subways, it can be agreed upon that the properly organized and accurately colored system we currently have is far better than the one of bygone days.</p><p>See the exclusive video interview with Lloyd above to get the full story.</p><p>This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed. ©2018 FOX News Network, LLC. All rights reserved. All market data delayed 20 minutes.</p>