What Is a Genetically Modified Crop? A European Ruling Sows Confusion.
In Europe, plants created with gene-editing technologies will be stringently regulated as G.M.O.’s. But older crops whose DNA has been altered will be left alone.
Mushrooms that don’t brown. Wheat that fights off disease. Tomatoes with a longer growing season.
Many scientists responded to the decision with dismay, predicting that countries in the developing world would follow Europe’s lead, blocking useful gene-edited crops from reaching farms and marketplaces. The ruling may also curtail exports from the United States, which has taken a more lenient view of gene-edited foods.
“You’re not just affecting Europe, you’re affecting the world with this decision,” said Matthew Willmann, the director of the Plant Transformation Facility at Cornell University.
But the ruling also raises a more fundamental question: What does it actually mean for a crop to be genetically modified?
In its decision, the European Union court exempted crops produced through older methods of altering DNA, saying they were not genetically modified organisms. That assertion left many scientists scratching their heads.
“I don’t know why they are doing that,” said Jennifer Kuzma, an expert in genetic engineering at North Carolina State University. “I was thinking, ‘Do they have the right science advice?’”
Since the agricultural revolution 10,000 years ago, all crop breeding has come down to altering the genetic composition of plants. For centuries, farmers selected certain plants to breed, or crossed varieties, hoping to pass useful traits to future generations.
In the early 20th century, scientists discovered genes and invented new ways to breed crops. Two lines of corn, for example, could be melded into hybrid plants that were superior to either parent.
By the 1920s, researchers realized that they didn’t have to content themselves with amplifying the genetic variations that already existed in plants. They could create new mutations.
To do so, they fired X-rays at plants or used chemicals that disrupted plant DNA. Mutagenesis, as this method came to be known, introduced random mutations into plants.
Scientists inspected the mutants to find those that were improvements. Thousands of plant breeds in use today, from strawberries to barley, are the product of mutagenesis.
In the 1970s, microbiologists figured out how to insert genes from humans and other species into bacteria. Plant scientists later used recombinant DNA, as the technology came to be known, to develop methods for inserting genes into plants to improve their growth.
Some varieties of corn, for example, received a gene from bacteria that allowed the crops to produce an insect-killing toxin. These came to be known as genetically modified crops, and they sparked a storm of controversy.
Environmental groups such as Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth raised concerns that genetically modified crops posed unpredictable dangers.
The plants might escape farmers’ fields and spread through wild ecosystems, for instance, perhaps hybridizing with wild plants and introducing their genes into new species.
Environmental groups also raised the possibility that genetically modified crops could harm human health. Genetically modified crops not only produce proteins from their own genes, but from the genes of other species, as well.
On opposite sides of the Atlantic, the conflict has played out in very different ways.
While the government has put in place a number of regulations governing genetically modified crops, the industry has boomed. Over 185 million acres of these crops were planted in the United States in 2017.
In Europe, by contrast, concerns about genetically modified organisms led the European Union to issue a directive in 2001. From the early stages of research to the marketplace, these products would have to pass a series of tests for environmental risks and human safety.
But the directive made it clear that crops made through older forms of mutagenesis were not genetically modified organisms because they were “conventional” and had “a long safety record.”
The result of the directive has been that Europe grows almost no genetically modified crops. In 2017, only 325,000 acres were planted across the continent.
In the years after the E.U.’s directive came out, science advanced beyond recombinant DNA. Rather than inserting a gene from another species, researchers learned to snip out piece of a plant’s DNA, or even rewrite short stretches of genetic material.
Instead of inserting foreign genes, scientists were able to edit a plant’s own DNA in new ways. They could create crops that make more, or fewer, proteins from their own genes, gaining advantageous traits.
When scientists first started experimenting with gene-editing on crops, the European Union offered no clear guidance. In 2015, a French agricultural union and allies such as Friends of the Earth went to court to have gene-edited crops labeled as genetically modified organisms — and regulated as such.
And now the court has agreed. In a statement, the court said gene-edited crops were GMOs “within the meaning of the G.M.O. Directive.”
Dana Perls, the senior food and agriculture campaigner at Friends of the Earth, praised the court for recognizing gene-editing as genetic modification. “We need to call it what it is,” she said.
Ms. Perls said that Crispr and other new methods for tinkering with plant DNA raise concerns about safety, just as recombinant DNA did.
“Gene-editing technologies have unintended consequences,” she said.
Ms. Perls pointed to some scientific journal articles that describe how Crispr and other forms of gene-editing can miss their targets, accidentally altering other stretches of DNA in an organism.
But one of the authors of those papers, Jeffrey D. Wolt, a professor of agronomy and toxicology at Iowa State University, was dismayed by the E.U. court ruling.
“It all boils down to legal interpretations of the directive rather than the weight of the science,” he said.
Dr. Wolt said that it’s important to distinguish Crispr research on plants and the use of gene editing to develop new medical treatments.
There are many opportunities in plant experiments to screen out unwanted mutations. As a result, the chances of unexpected mutations in gene-edited plants are falling to low levels.
Dr. Wolt said that there wasn’t a strong scientific reason to consider gene-edited plants to be G.M.O.s while exempting crops created in the old way, with X-rays and chemicals producing many random mutations at once. “It’s hairsplitting,” he said.
The United States is continuing to veer from Europe. In March, the Department of Agriculture announced that it was not planning to regulate gene-edited crops as it does crops with foreign genes inserted with recombinant DNA.
As a result, Crispr-edited crops like mushrooms are expected to move quickly into the American marketplace. But these crops may be barred from import into Europe.
Strictly speaking, however, the United States stance also is contradictory. Crops created with recombinant DNA, are said to be genetically modified organisms, because genes have been inserted into their DNA.
Yet tinkering with a plant’s DNA with Crispr is apparently not genetic modification, because these crops “are indistinguishable from those developed through traditional breeding methods,” according to a U.S.D.A. statement issued in March.
Dr. Wolt said that the only way to escape these contradictions would be for government regulators to stop focusing on mutagenesis, recombinant DNA, Crispr and other methods for making new crops. “It’s the products we should be concerned with,” he said.
“As soon as we solve this problem favorably or unfavorably for Crispr, there’s going to be a new technology that comes along and we’re going to have the same problem again.”
July 27, 2018
Sources: New York Times
or redistributed. ©2018 FOX News Network, LLC. All rights reserved. All market data delayed 20 minutes.</p><p>Scientists from the Mote Marine Laboratory conduct tests on system that removes toxins and excess decomposing organic material from water.</p><p>When he issued the emergency order, Scott also announced funding and resources to combat the crisis, including over $100,000 for Mote Marine Laboratory.</p><p>The Sarasota-based lab has developed an ozone treatment system to remove the microscopic plantlike organisms that are responsible for the red tide.</p><p>The area is no stranger to red tide events. “Red tides were documented in the southern Gulf of Mexico as far back as the 1700s and along Florida's Gulf coast in the 1840s,” explains the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. “Fish kills near Tampa Bay were even mentioned in the records of Spanish explorers.”</p><p>This summer’s red tide has already caused the deaths of hundreds of sea turtles, as well as large fish like goliath grouper and even manatees. In places like Longboat Key, more than 5 tons of dead fish have been removed from beaches.</p><p>This week, nine dead dolphins were found in Sarasota County. Marine biologists are investigating whether the deaths are related to red tide.</p><p>Red tides can also cause respiratory irritation for humans. “For people with severe or chronic respiratory conditions, such as emphysema or asthma, red tide can cause serious illness,” officials explain.</p><p>Unlike the red tide, the bloom is not naturally occurring. Nutrient pollution from agricultural and urban runoff causes the majority of freshwater cyanobacteria, or blue-green algae blooms, according to the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission.</p><p>Heavy rains in May caused Lake Okeechobee to discharge water containing blue-green algae into rivers and canals. The bright green sludge oozed onto docks, dams and rivers.</p><p>This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed. ©2018 FOX News Network, LLC. All rights reserved. All market data delayed 20 minutes.</p>
or redistributed. ©2018 FOX News Network, LLC. All rights reserved. All market data delayed 20 minutes.</p><p>The Mars Curiosity rover's discoveries through the years. </p><p>While expressing optimism that the worst of the Opportunity's rover's problems may be behind it, as the dust storm starts to "decay," NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Andrew Good cautioned that the battery for the $400 million vehicle might have discharged so much power and been inactive for so long, it could be a loss.</p><p>Good also cautioned that no one will know how the Opportunity rover is doing "until it speaks," but added that the team behind it is optimistic, after performing tests on its batteries before the storm hit its location.</p><p>"Because the batteries were in relatively good health before the storm, there's not likely to be too much degradation," Good wrote. "And because dust storms tend to warm the environment -- and the 2018 storm happened as Opportunity's location on Mars entered summer -- the rover should have stayed warm enough to survive."</p><p>Good added that the dust is less of a problem. Previous storms which "plastered dust on the camera lenses," saw most of the dust eventually shed off. "Any remaining dust can be calibrated out," he wrote.</p><p>Still, it has been a sore spot for NASA that it has not been able to contact the Opportunity rover since the dust storm.</p><p>"After the first time engineers hear from Opportunity, there could be a lag of several weeks before a second time," Good wrote. "It's like a patient coming out of a coma: It takes time to fully recover. It may take several communication sessions before engineers have enough information to take action."</p><p>Opportunity has three so-called "fault modes" when it experiences a problem: a low-power fault that causes it to go into hibernation until there is more sunlight to let it recharge; clock fault, which might happen if the rover doesn't know what time it is, causing disruptions in communication and uploss fault, which occurs when the rover hasn't heard from Earth in a long time, causing it to check its equipment and try alternate ways to communicate with Earth.</p><p>The Opportunity rover, which was initially meant to only be on the Red Planet for a 90-day mission, has made several groundbreaking discoveries throughout its now roughly 15-year trip, initially leaving Earth on July 7, 2003.</p><p>So far, it has detected signs of water, explored the insides of two craters and completed a marathon — the first vehicle to do so on another planet.</p><p>But Opportunity's journey hasn't always been a smooth one.</p><p>Despite its obstacles, the Opportunity has always managed to pull through. But this time, researchers aren't sure what will happen.</p><p>This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed. ©2018 FOX News Network, LLC. All rights reserved. All market data delayed 20 minutes.</p>
n forming exoplanets, but they were never directly directed," study co-author Kevin Heng, a professor of astrophysics at the University of Bern in Switzerland, told NBC News MACH in an email. "Our result is the first robust, direct detection."</p><p>The match was "spot on," Heng said. The same research methods might be used "to detect molecules that hint at biology (biosignatures) in future, yet-to-be-detected exoplanets," he added. "In this way, these hot exoplanets are simply training grounds for us to battle-test our techniques for future detections of biosignatures" — that is, for finding evidence of extraterrestrial life.</p><p>The planet's orbit around its host star is about 30 times tighter than Earth's orbit around the sun; as a consequence, Kelt-9b completes one orbit of its star every 36 hours. (Earth, of course, takes 365 days to orbit the sun.) And the star looms large in Kelt-9b's sky. In fact, it covers 35 percent of the exoplanet's sky, which is about 70 times the apparent size of our sun.</p><p>The planet's peculiarities don't end with high temperatures and metallic vapors. Like our moon in its orbit around Earth, Kelt-9b is tidally locked. One side always faces the host star and is perpetually illuminated while the other always faces away, locked in perpetual night.</p><p>And if the temperatures fall low enough, the metal atoms in the atmosphere might link to form molecules and then coalesce into particles that would sink into the planet's interior. "Just like clouds on Earth drop liquid water raindrops, the rain on the night side would be iron drops," Seager said, adding that the drops would be very dense.</p><p>But what would iron rain be like? Jens Hoeijmakers, a postdoctoral student at the Universities of Geneva and Bern and the study's lead author, offered an analogy: "If you want to imagine it, raining lava might get you close!</p>
ge is between one man and one woman, “as it is understood in the Bible.” </p><p>Mary Walsh and Beverly Nance did considerable research in 2016 before deciding to move into a continuing care retirement community outside St. Louis.</p><p>They took a tour of Friendship Village Sunset Hills and were impressed by its pool and fitness center, a calendar crammed with activities, the newly built apartments for independent living. They had meals with a friend and with a former co-worker, and their spouses, all of them enthusiastic residents. </p><p>“We’d met other people from the community, and they were very friendly,” said Ms. Walsh, 72, a retired manager for AT&T. “I was feeling good about it.” </p><p>Like most C.C.R.C.s, Friendship Village — a “faith-based” but nondenominational nonprofit — includes assisted living and a nursing home on its 52-acre campus, an important consideration. </p><p>If one woman someday needed more care than the other, “we’d still be able to have dinner together,” Ms. Walsh said. “We wanted to be together, no matter what happened.”</p><p>The community seemed eager to recruit them, too, offering a lower entrance fee if they signed an agreement promptly. So they paid a $2,000 deposit on a two-bedroom unit costing $235,000. </p><p>They notified their homeowners association that they’d be putting their house in Shrewsbury, Mo., on the market and canceled a vacation because they’d be moving in 90 days. Ms. Walsh contacted a realtor and began packing. </p><p>Then came a call from the residence director, asking Ms. Walsh the nature of her relationship with Ms. Nance, 68, a retired professor.</p><p>“I said, ‘We’ve been married since 2009,’” Ms. Walsh replied. “She said, ‘I’m going to need to call you back.’” </p><p>In turning down their application, Friendship Village had mailed a copy of its cohabitation policy, which limits shared units to siblings, parents and children, or spouses. </p><p>“The term ‘marriage’ as used in this policy means the union of one man and one woman, as marriage is understood in the Bible,” the policy noted. </p><p>“It’s hard to think of a more clear-cut case of discrimination because of sex,” said Julie Wilensky, senior staff attorney at the National Center for Lesbian Rights. The center represents the couple, along with private attorneys and the ACLU of Missouri, in what’s believed to be the first federal suit by a same-sex couple turned away from a retirement community. </p><p>“One thing so troubling about this case, and this time, is the argument that religious beliefs can justify discrimination,” said Michael Adams, chief executive of Sage, an advocacy group for L.G.B.T. seniors. </p><p>Faith organizations operate many retirement facilities. If a baker can refuse to make a wedding cake for a gay couple (and have the Supreme Court agree, albeit on narrow grounds), can a C.C.R.C. refuse admission to Mary Walsh and Beverly Nance?</p><p>Neither the federal nor the Missouri law explicitly covers sexual orientation, but both outlaw sex discrimination. “If either Mary or Beverly were a man, the couple wouldn’t have been denied housing,” Ms. Wilensky said. </p><p>Compared to older adults who are heterosexual, “they’re much less likely to be parents and twice as likely to be single and live alone,” said Mr. Adams of Sage.</p><p>With less help from partners or families, “they’re more likely to have to rely on professional care and services,” Mr. Adams said.</p><p>His organization has fielded thousands of complaints about long-term care from L.G.B.T. seniors: disrespect from staff members, harassment by fellow residents, religious proselytizing, refusal to recognize same-sex relationships. </p><p>“We often hear about people deciding to go back in the closet because they’re afraid,” Mr. Adams said.</p><p>In about half the tests, the facilities were more likely to discriminate. The testers posing as same-sex spouses were offered fewer rental units, faced higher prices or more burdensome application requirements, or were less likely to hear about financial incentives. </p><p>With its written policy, Friendship Village operated more blatantly. </p><p>The management declined an interview request. But in a statement, the vice president of its board of directors said that “guided by our Christian faith,” it led “a loving community that wishes only the very best for all people, including Ms. Walsh and Ms. Nance.” </p><p>The statement went on to say, “We are taking the matter very seriously. We are prayerfully and thoughtfully reviewing this issue.” </p><p>Advocates fear that the progress they’ve made could be undermined by federal actions, however, and by a possibly related slip in public approval. </p><p>But in its most recent survey, more respondents said they felt uncomfortable in certain scenarios (a child having a gay teacher, for example), while L.G.B.T. people reported increasing discrimination.</p><p>Ms. Walsh and Ms. Nance thought they’d gotten past this sort of response. Earlier, visiting a Lutheran retirement community, Ms. Walsh had asked an administrator if he foresaw a problem admitting two married women. </p><p>“He said no and looked at me like, why would you ask me such a silly question?” </p><p>So when Friendship Village suddenly refused them, “I was blindsided,” she said. “I felt like they had kicked me in the stomach.” </p><p>Initially stunned, the women grew angry, contacted the federal Department of Housing and Urban Development, then decided to turn to the courts.</p><p>“This is not right. They shouldn’t be able to do this,” Ms. Walsh said of Friendship Village. “We met all the qualifications, other than one of us wasn’t a man.” </p><p>Their lawsuit asks the court to order the facility to develop policies and procedures to prevent discrimination.</p><p>And the women seek a permanent injunction to keep the community from denying them admission. After all this, they still want to move into Friendship Village.</p>
decomposing bodies, with the help of scavengers, might alter plant diversity across a broad landscape.</p><p>Their bodies soon became a soup of nutrients and a rich feeding ground for scavengers, which dropped feces packed with seeds all around the carcasses.</p><p>“From death comes life,” said Sam Steyaert, a researcher at the University of South-Eastern Norway and the Norwegian University of Life Sciences, and an author of the paper. </p><p>When Dr. Steyaert learned of the reindeer die-off, he saw an opportunity to turn a tragedy into a grand natural experiment. </p><p>He and a group of collaborators started a self-funded project. They named it REINCAR, which was short for reindeer carcasses, but also the start of the word reincarnation.</p><p>That October, the scientists set up their field laboratory. Each visit, they arrived to hundreds of ravens and crows, many smaller birds and the occasional circling eagle or buzzard. Their camera traps captured foxes and wolverines, among other visitors. </p><p>The cadavers still bore plenty of flesh but were ballooned from the gases released during decomposition and contained “all kinds of juice — and thousands and thousands of maggots, of course,” Dr. Steyaert said. </p><p>There were also piles of feces everywhere. Some droppings, the researchers noticed, were blue and loaded with crowberry seeds.</p><p>From survey plots, the scientists found that fox and bird feces were most concentrated in carrion-dense areas, supporting their suspicion that carcasses were magnets for scavengers. They confirmed in the lab that a large portion of crowberry seeds found in the feces could grow into seedlings. </p><p>Incidentally, “that’s exactly what the carcasses are creating,” Dr. Steyaert said, explaining that abrupt shifts in soil nutrients and acidity from rotting carrion kills vegetation. </p><p>Add a bunch of roaming scavengers that bring in a mix of seeds from a wide area, and you basically have “directed seed dispersal to the ideal germination spot,” he said. </p><p>His team suspects the site will become a hot spot of genetic diversity for plants, as well as nutrients and microbes that scavengers help redistribute.</p><p>Ecologists typically think of carcasses as hyperlocal “decomposition islands,” said Jennifer Pechal, an assistant entomology professor at Michigan State University who was not involved in the study. The idea that carcasses can alter biodiversity across a wider landscape is “fascinating” and a “novel perspective,” she said. </p><p>Over the last couple years, they have watched it evolve. The first spring was the smelliest time, with blowflies swarming everywhere. To deal with the stench, the researchers put menthol cream in their noses.</p><p>By last fall, it was mostly skin and bones, with almost no vegetation to be seen. This summer, there’s still skin and bones — but life is starting to return. Sedges and grasses are filling in, including a wavy hairgrass that bears purple flowers and makes the whole patch look pinkish from a distance.</p><p>And just last week, when the researchers visited the site, they noticed a new addition: plenty of crowberry seedlings. </p>
or redistributed. ©2018 FOX News Network, LLC. All rights reserved. All market data delayed 20 minutes.</p><p> Dead elk found in Oregon suffered broken limbs and antlers, as well as torn hides, likely from an avalanche, state Fish and Wildlife officials say. (iStock) </p><p>Some hikers in Oregon recently found 19 dead elk, which state Fish and Wildlife officials say were likely the victims of an avalanche.</p><p>The hikers made the discovery last week near No Name Lake and Broken Top mountain peak, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife said.</p><p>“It was really unsettling to see in person,” Bowles told the paper.</p><p>The elk suffered broken limbs and antlers, as well as torn hides from the avalanche. Their bodies were also twisted and contorted.</p><p>Bowles said it was not clear when the avalanche took place, but believes it was likely last summer after the winter of 2016-17, when the area had a record amount of snowfall.</p><p>The wildlife biologist told the paper that, based on the regions researchers have been able to study, it is rare for elk to get trapped in avalanches, however, he noted it could be taking place in more remote areas.</p><p>Bowles said the elk will not be removed as it is unnecessary and too dangerous. </p><p>Benjamin Brown is a reporter for Fox News. Follow him on Twitter @bdbrown473.</p><p>This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed. ©2018 FOX News Network, LLC. All rights reserved. All market data delayed 20 minutes.</p>
rom an ancient Egyptian tomb discovered a group of broken jars, one of them containing a mysterious white substance.</p><p>“The archaeologists suspected it was food, according to the conservation method and the position of the finding inside the tomb, but we discovered it was cheese after the first tests,” Enrico Greco, the lead author of the paper and a research assistant at Peking University in Beijing, said in an email.</p><p>The ancient cheese, which was sometimes included in the feasts buried alongside wealthy Egyptians, was probably similar in consistency to chevre, but with a “really, really acidy” bite, according to Paul Kindstedt, a professor at the University of Vermont who studies the chemistry and history of cheese.</p><p>“It would be high in moisture; it would be spreadable,” he said. “It would not last long; it would spoil very quickly.”</p><p>And while the sample retrieved by Dr. Greco’s colleagues may be old, others have discovered traces of ancient cheese or yogurt (the two can be difficult to distinguish) that long predate even the recent finding, Dr. Kindstedt said.</p><p>“Other groups have done a lot of work with extracting lipid residues, fat residues, from ancient pots going back as far as 7000 B.C.,” he said.</p><p>In fact, in 1942, a team of researchers reported a finding not dissimilar to that of Dr. Greco and his colleagues, Dr. Kindstedt pointed out. In a journal article, they described finding a substance in ancient Egyptian jars that they suspected to be cheese dating back to 3200 B.C. The samples, they wrote, had “no smell and only a dusty taste.”</p><p>But even if the cheese Dr. Greco tested isn’t the oldest ever found, the findings stand out for another reason: the application of a state-of-the-art protein analysis.</p><p>“As I say to my students every year when I get to Egypt, someone has to go ahead and analyze these residues with modern capabilities,” said Dr. Kindstedt, who added that he plans to use Dr. Greco’s paper in his teachings this fall. “This is a logical next step and I think you’re going to see a lot more of this.”</p><p>In their analysis, Dr. Greco and his colleagues found hundreds of peptides, or chains of amino acids. Most were human and represented skin and saliva contamination, but, crucially, nine were linked to bovine or ovine milk.</p>
or redistributed. ©2018 FOX News Network, LLC. All rights reserved. All market data delayed 20 minutes.</p><p> Several giant, hairy creatures have washed up in recent years. (REUTERS) </p><p>Is it the remains of a woolly mammoth — or a decaying whale? Those were the questions on beachgoers' minds as they gathered around a giant, hairy sea creature that was beached in Siberia.</p><p>The mysterious creature, which doesn't appear to have a prominent face with eyes, recently washed up from the Bering Sea.</p><p>The creature is about three times as big as an average man and some reported seeing at least one tentacle, prompting some to question whether it was a huge octopus. The carcass had a pungent odor.</p><p>Marine biologist Sergei Kornev, who works at the Russian Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography (VNIRO), told the newspaper the "globster" was most likely a piece of a whale that had been dead for awhile.</p><p>"Under the influence of the sea, time and various animals, from the smallest to the largest, a whale often takes on bizarre forms," he explained. "This is only a part of a whale, not a whole one."</p><p>It's currently unclear whether researchers will take tissue or DNA samples from the creature. </p><p>This isn't the first time a shaggy-haired "monster" has been spotted on a beach.</p><p>Based on the size and shape of the creature, and what marine experts observed, fishery experts confirmed it was the body of a whale. </p><p>In February 2017, another odd creature washed ashore in the Philippines — just off the Dinagat Islands.</p><p>This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed. ©2018 FOX News Network, LLC. All rights reserved. All market data delayed 20 minutes.</p>
or redistributed. ©2018 FOX News Network, LLC. All rights reserved. All market data delayed 20 minutes.</p><p>After a horse named Sammy was taken in by a rescue animal shelter, he became friends with a Golden Retriever named Molly. The friendship is being credited for helping nurse the sickly horse back to health.</p><p>A golden retriever is being credited for nursing a neglected horse back to health after the animals formed an unlikely bond that was captured in a viral video.</p><p>Molly, the 3-year-old dog, was at Carolina Equine Rescue and Assistance when the horse, named Sammy, was found wandering the streets in South Carolina. Darlene Kindle, who works at the rescue shelter, said in a Facebook post that the silver dapple mini horse was brought to the shelter earlier this month. Sammy was “scared” and was “nothing but skin and bones.” </p><p>“Always happy and Molly is your typical Walmart greater [SIC]. She loves everyone including all the animals we have on the farm. She especially loves the minis she can reach them much easier,” the caption read.</p><p>“Molly truly has an exceptional sense of knowing when one of the animals doesn’t feel good or sad. So she very gently introduces herself. This is her job and she is very good at it as you can see,” the shelter wrote.</p><p>The shelter said Sammy has a long road to recovery ahead of him, but has improved each day. The shelter also shared more photos of Molly and Sammy. </p><p>The video of the animals’ bond has been viewed more than 581,000 times. The post has received more than 16,000 reactions and 12,000 shares.</p><p>This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed. ©2018 FOX News Network, LLC. All rights reserved. All market data delayed 20 minutes.</p>
or redistributed. ©2018 FOX News Network, LLC. All rights reserved. All market data delayed 20 minutes.</p><p>'Wheelie dogs' captured on video fighting to keep deflated green ball.</p><p>Several wheelchair-bound rescue dogs playfully “ruffed” it up when they chased each other during playtime. </p><p>The rescued dogs are dubbed “wheelie dogs” because they are wheelchair-dependent.</p><p>The animal sanctuary houses more than 500 animals and has a strict no-kill policy.</p><p>This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed. ©2018 FOX News Network, LLC. All rights reserved. All market data delayed 20 minutes.</p>