What is the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale?
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Rapidly intensifying hurricane expected to remain a category 4 storm until landfall along the Carolinas; Adam Klotz reports from the Fox Extreme Weather Center.
Hurricanes are categorized using what’s known as the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale.
Different types of damage may occur depending on each storm category. Read on to see what they signify.
For storms in this category, there’s going to be “some damage” from winds, the NHC advises.
Large tree branches and shallow trees could be knocked down, according to the agency. Gutters, roofs, shingles and vinyl siding for what it calls “well-constructed frame homes” could be affected, too.
“Extremely dangerous winds will cause extensive damage,” the NHC warns for such storms.
There may be power outages “that could last from several days to weeks.”
Category 3, Category 4 and Category 5 storms are all labeled “major” hurricanes.
With Category 3, there will be “devastating” damage, according to the NHC.
“Well-built framed homes may incur major damage or removal of roof decking and gable ends,” the agency warns. There also may be no water or electricity for days to weeks after the storm moves along.
“Well-built framed homes can sustain severe damage with loss of most of the roof structure and/or some exterior walls,” the NHC explains.
For both Category 4 and Category 5 storms, “catastrophic” damage is forecast: they involve residential areas being cut off by trees and power poles that have come down, the agency says, and there may be months-long power outages.
This is the highest rating for hurricanes on the scale.
“A high percentage of framed homes will be destroyed, with total roof failure and wall collapse,” according to the NHC.
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September 12, 2018
rence are continuing to strain North Carolina’s hog lagoons.</p><p>Because of the storm, at least 77 lagoons in the state have either released pig waste into the environment or are at imminent risk of doing so, according to data issued Tuesday by the North Carolina Department of Environmental Quality. That tally more than doubled from the day before, when the department’s count was 34.</p><p>North Carolina has 9.7 million pigs that produce 10 billion gallons of manure, mostly on large-scale farms, primarily in low-lying Sampson and Dupin counties. Both counties were affected by Florence. </p><p>When storms like Florence hit, lagoons can release their waste into the environment through structural damage, for example, when rains erode the banks of a lagoon and cause breaches. They can also overflow from rainfall or be swept over by floodwaters.</p><p>Whatever the cause, the result when a lagoon leaks can be environmental trouble. If the untreated waste enters rivers, for example, algal blooms and mass fish die-offs can happen, as they did in 1999 during Hurricane Floyd. That year, many animals drowned in lagoon slurry.</p><p>Hog lagoons and the associated large-scale farms, also known as concentrated animal feeding operations, or CAFOs, have been a sore spot in the eastern part of the state where residents say that the operations harm their health and well-being. </p><p> “Life expectancy in North Carolina communities near hog CAFOs remains low, even after adjusting for socioeconomic factors that are known to affect people’s health and life span,” Dr. H. Kim Lyerly, a professor of cancer research at Duke, said in a statement. The Duke study stops short of drawing a causal link.</p><p>Last week, Andy Curliss, chief executive of the North Carolina Pork Council, said that the pig producers had learned a lot from Hurricane Floyd. In 2016, Hurricane Matthew caused 14 lagoons to flood but none breached, according to the pork council.</p><p>As Florence approached, farmers tried to free up more space in lagoons ahead of the storm by spraying manure onto fields, said Heather Overton, a spokeswoman for the state’s Agriculture Department.</p><p>Will Hendrick, a staff attorney with the environmental nonprofit group Waterkeeper Alliance, said that manure sprayed on fields could run off into rivers, streams, and groundwater supplies if the fields flooded. </p><p>Part of the problem, said Alexis Andiman, an associate attorney with the environmental nonprofit law firm Earthjustice, is that storm standards for pig lagoons currently date from the 1960s.</p>
ely reversed a regulation designed to prevent methane, one of the most powerful greenhouse gases, from escaping into the atmosphere during oil and gas operations.</p><p>“This is really about fulfilling our commitments to the policy vision that the president has established,” David Bernhardt, deputy secretary of the Interior Department, said Tuesday. He noted that Mr. Trump, in an executive order in March, had directed the Interior Department to reconsider the Obama-era rule and others that “unduly burden” the development of domestic energy resources.</p><p>Methane is a short-lived but potent greenhouse gas that, along with carbon dioxide, is considered a primary driver of global warming. For the first 20 years after its release into the atmosphere, it is about 86 times as powerful as carbon dioxide at trapping heat. That effect weakens over the decades.</p><p>The old rule, which never went into effect, would have required oil and gas companies to capture leaked methane, repair outdated leak-detection equipment and come up with new plans to reduce waste. Had it been finalized, it would have cut methane from the oil and gas sector by as much as 35 percent and helped the United States to achieve its greenhouse gas emissions goal under the global Paris Agreement on climate change. </p><p>The Obama administration had argued the methane rule would have saved the United States about $188 million annually by allowing more natural gas to be sold and preventing the escape of methane and other pollutants. The oil and gas industry said it could cost as much as $279 million to implement and would hinder production.</p><p>Mr. Milito called the new rule “a positive step” though he said his organization was still reviewing the details.</p>
the Trump administration Tuesday after the U.S. Bureau of Land Management announced that it was eliminating Obama-era rules intended to reduce energy companies' methane emissions on Indian tribal and federally controlled lands.</p><p>"We've sued the administration before over the illegal delay and suspension of this rule and will continue doing everything in our power to hold them accountable for the sake of our people and planet," Becerra said in a statement.</p><p>The regulations will be wiped out in 60 days unless the Northern California U.S. District Court challenge is successful. Methane, a potent greenhouse gas that experts say contributes to global warming, often escapes in the extraction of natural gas.</p><p>The Obama-era rules, finalized days after the 2016 presidential election and implemented last year, assessed fees on certain energy producers that allow excess methane to escape into the atmosphere, required more inspections, and phased out routine flaring, or burn-offs.</p><p>The Trump administration has argued that the rules overlapped with existing tribal land regulations and would not "foster economic growth," according to a statement Tuesday from the Department of the Interior, which oversees the Bureau of Land Management.</p><p>"The Trump Administration is committed to innovative regulatory improvement and environmental stewardship," Interior's deputy secretary. David Bernhardt, said in the same statement.</p><p>The Bureau of Land Management earlier estimated that the regulations would have eliminated 175,000 tons of methane emissions and generated as much as $14 million in additional annual royalties that are split between state and federal governments.</p><p>"Today's announcement [by the BLM] is just a continuation of this administration's ongoing assault on clean air, public lands, our health, and our climate," Lena Moffitt, a Sierra Club senior director, said in a statement Tuesday.</p>
or redistributed. ©2018 FOX News Network, LLC. All rights reserved. All market data delayed 20 minutes.</p><p>A 20-foot great white shark known as "Deep Blue" is caught on film. The 50-year-old shark is thought to be the largest great white ever filmed in the wild.</p><p>Researchers from Monterey bay Aquarium and Stanford University have discovered, between California and Hawaii, an area the size of Colorado that appears to be a “White Shark Café” — but it is unclear if the sharks are there for food or sex.</p><p>“They are telling us this incredible story about the mid-water, and there is this whole secret life that we need to know about,” Salvador Jorgensen, a research scientist for the Monterey Bay Aquarium and one of the expedition’s leaders, told the paper.</p><p>The area where the sharks flock to was referred to as the oceanic version of the Sahara desert.</p><p>Researchers last fall used equipment to monitor the sharks’ movement and found sharks taking unusually deep dives – up to 3,000 feet – and also noticed male sharks behaved differently from females. Male sharks moved up and down the water in what was described as a V-shape, and swam in the formation up to 140 times a day.</p><p>“Either they are eating something different or this is related in some way to their mating,” Jorgensen said.</p><p>“What we’ve learned through the progression of our research is that this mid-water layer is extremely important for white sharks,” he said. “They are swimming in these layers, tracking [prey] day and night. ... It’s a game of hide-and-seek.”</p><p>This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed. ©2018 FOX News Network, LLC. All rights reserved. All market data delayed 20 minutes.</p>
e these. But he had reasons to share the spotlight with the Japanese billionaire: Mr. Maezawa had already put down a deposit for a flight aboard SpaceX’s next-generation rocket, the B.F.R.</p><p>While SpaceX’s Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy rockets have been significant technological achievements, its engineers have started to turn their attention toward the B.F.R., a much more ambitious vehicle that Mr. Musk hopes will one day make regular trips to and from Mars, part of his vision of spreading humanity across the solar system.</p><p>Mr. Musk said B.F.R. was still a small project at SpaceX — less than 5 percent of the work, he estimated — but was one that would grow in the coming years. Mr. Maezawa’s four- to five-day trip moon trip would not occur until 2023 at the earliest.</p><p>Mr. Musk estimated development costs at roughly $5 billion. “I don’t think it’s more than 10, and I don’t think it’s less than two,” he said.</p><p>SpaceX successfully launched its newest rocket, the Falcon Heavy, in February.</p><p>Later, he contacted SpaceX, which was getting closer to launching its Falcon Heavy rocket, capable of sending missions to the moon. Last year, SpaceX announced that it was in discussions with two people for an around-the-moon trip that would take place in late 2018. On Monday, Mr. Musk said that Mr. Maezawa was one of those people.</p><p>However, SpaceX decided not to undertake the expense and effort needed to ensure that the Falcon Heavy was safe enough to carry humans, and the tourist trip was deferred.</p><p>Discussions then moved to using the B.F.R. for the moon trip, even if that meant waiting five years. Mr. Maezawa said he was willing to wait longer, as long as he was still the first private person to get to the moon.</p><p>Mr. Maezawa also said that art contributed to his ultimate hope of world peace. “Art makes people smile, brings people together.”</p><p>He added that he looked forward to seeing the works of art that would be inspired by the trip and wondered what masterpieces Basquiat, who died in 1988, might have created.</p><p>When asked whether a trip around the moon was the most beneficial way to spend his fortune, Mr. Maezawa acknowledged the philanthropic efforts of other entrepreneurs, but said, through a translator, “I want to contribute to society in a different way.”</p><p>“So maybe 10 years from now, people will be laughing I paid so much, but somebody needs to make the first payment,” he added. “Otherwise, space development is not going to evolve. That’s why I think I should be the one to do this.”</p><p>Until now, only 24 people have made the quarter-million-mile journey to the moon — all NASA astronauts during the Apollo program in the 1960s and 1970s. The trajectory of Mr. Maezawa and his guests would be similar to the one taken by the Apollo 8 astronauts in 1968 as they swung by the moon but did not land.</p><p>Liftoff aboard the B.F.R. is still be years away, on a gargantuan rocket that would offer much more spacious accommodations than the Apollo astronauts had. At the news conference, Mr. Musk described the latest iteration of the design, which eventually is to carry 100 people to Mars.</p><p>(The “B” stands for “big;” the “R” is for “rocket.” In public, Gwynne Shotwell, SpaceX’s president, states its full name as “Big Falcon Rocket.” Mr. Musk and the company’s news releases have remained ambiguous about what the “F” stands for.)</p><p>Mr. Musk said that the rocket would be test launched many times in the years to come, including possibly an uncrewed flight around the moon before Mr. Maezawa and the artists went aboard. “That would be wise,” Mr. Musk said.</p><p>On the stage Monday night, Mr. Musk, showered praiseful adjectives like “bravest” on Mr. Maezawa.</p><p>“This is a dangerous mission,” Mr. Musk said. “Definitely dangerous.”</p><p>Mr. Maezawa seemed unfazed by the potential dangers, saying during the interview that he trusted the SpaceX team. “Everyone around me, they are very supportive of my adventures,” he said.</p><p>He also noted that his birthday and the assassination of President Kennedy share a day — Nov. 22 — 12 years apart. “I feel destiny,” he said.</p><p>Mr. Musk, when he was asked on the stage when he would go to space, was uncertain. “He did suggest that maybe I would join on this trip,” he said. “I don’t know.”</p>
hat threaten to push the birds that breed in coastal marshes along the Atlantic Coast to extinction. </p><p>HAMMONASSET BEACH STATE PARK, Conn. — The newly hatched saltmarsh sparrows are helpless, all but featherless, with reddish skin, barely visible in the evening light. </p><p>Mosquitoes buzz as Samantha Apgar holds aside a tangle of marsh grass, or salt hay, to show me the hidden nest. It’s the size of half a baseball, tucked in under a tangle of grass. The incoming tide is rising over the soles of our boots and the hatchlings won’t stay dry long.</p><p>Ms. Apgar, a graduate student at the University of Connecticut, is working with Christopher Elphick, an ornithologist there, to record what happens when high tides flood the nests of marsh birds. She has automatic video cameras and is also collaborating with videographers from the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, one of whom has his camera trained on this nest and had recorded the hatching of these babies a couple of hours before. </p><p>She warns me that the outlook for these fragile hatchlings is grim. If they last through the night, they still have five days of increasingly high tides ahead of them until the new moon. “I don’t think they’re going to make it,” Ms. Apgar says.</p><p>The species, which breeds in coastal marshes from Maine to Virginia, and lives only on the Atlantic Coast, has always been at the mercy of time and tide, nesting between the highest spring tides. But now a sea level rise of a fraction of an inch a year caused by climate change is pushing tides higher and higher, threatening the birds’ survival. Their population has been declining about nine percent a year since the late 1990s. They now number somewhere from 40,000 to 80,000, although overall population estimates are tentative because the birds are not always easy to find. </p><p>Dr. Elphick and his colleagues recently predicted that they will reach a threshold, when the highest spring tides come too often to allow the birds time to raise their young. “After that threshold is crossed,” he says, “these birds have maybe six years before they’re extinct.” </p><p>Over just a few years, he said, the situation could change “from most birds in the population having a moderate chance of successfully breeding, to most birds having a poor chance of breeding.”</p><p>The birds’ precarious existence is one example of the threat to the coastal marshes of the Eastern Seaboard and all the species that depend on them. The end may not come gradually for the species living on the edge. </p><p>“We could suddenly lose a lot of stuff very quickly,” Dr. Elphick says. “I think that’s what’s scary to those of us who study this stuff. The recognition of how rapidly things can change.”</p><p>In the morning, the newly hatched sparrows are gone, drowned in the night’s high tide and the mother sparrow is already looking for fathers for her second brood. She can’t waste time; the tides won’t wait. </p><p>Those hatchlings drowned on the night of June 10, near the beginning of a nesting season that runs from May through August. Ms. Apgar followed nests at the Connecticut site throughout the season. Of 59 nests found, 40 failed. She knows that 16 were flooded and failed. The others may have, but she doesn’t have the evidence. Four nests produced young that survived at least long enough to leave the nest, and she doesn’t know what happened to the hatchlings in the other 15. </p><p>This is not research for the faint of heart. “They get out of the egg and pretty soon after are inundated with cold water and either drown or make it through and fledge,” Ms. Apgar said. “It’s a hard way to be born I think.”</p><p>Dr. Elphick said it is common to come out and find “little baby chicks drowned everywhere.” But, he said, “that’s part of their life history. That has happened ever since they’ve been living in marshes, to some extent.”</p><p>It is certainly hard to watch the videos that document chicks drowning when the water rises.</p><p>If the scientists are used to the fragility of sparrow life, some of their friends are not. Ms. Apgar recalled posting a picture of nestlings on Facebook and a friend said, “‘Are they going to make it Sammie?’ And I said, ‘Oh Brookie, I don’t think so.’ And she said, ‘Don’t “Oh Brookie” me!’” </p><p>The birds do have what seem to be adaptations to their hard lives. The eggs can go underwater for 90 minutes at a time, surviving the temperature drop and loss of oxygen absorption through the air. </p><p>When the chicks are old enough, they can climb up the marsh grass to get away from the rising water, even if they are not fully ready to leave the nest.</p><p>Dr. Elphick says it’s very difficult to pin down an evolutionary cause for a behavior, but for the female sparrows, promiscuity seems to make good sense. Mating quickly is of utmost importance so you can’t be too choosy, and if you’re not being picky about prospective fathers, “you may be better off mating with multiple males.” </p><p>Unfortunately, none of these apparent adaptations will help if the birds don’t have around 23 days between nest-flooding tides to lay eggs, incubate them and raise the chicks to the stage when they’re able to leave the nest.</p><p>That’s where lunar cycles and tides come in. The highest spring tides, very likely to flood the nests, occur roughly every 28 days. Whether the highest tide is at the new or full moon depends on multiyear cycles. Now, new moon tides are the highest. No matter, there is always a secondary peak midway between the highest tides. Right now those secondary peaks don’t cause nest flooding as predictably as the new moon tides do.</p><p>Their computer models, designed to accommodate the complexity of a reality that is far messier than a tide table, produced the prediction of the sparrow’s dire future. And their conclusion showed that gradual change cannot be counted on. You can approach a cliff gradually, but the last step is pretty abrupt.</p><p>As we squished through the marsh after examining the doomed nestlings, I asked if his work felt like a deathwatch.</p><p>“It is disconcerting,” he said, “to come to the realization that the species you’re studying that doesn’t seem that rare could go extinct within your lifetime.” Then he laughed, “Yeah, for sure.”</p><p>“The conservation of this species right now — and not just this species but the whole suite of things that live in salt marshes — centers around where are the places where it’s possible for there to be marshes 30 years, 50 years, 80 years from now,” Dr. Elphick said. </p><p>One stopgap measure might be drainage ditches. Many Eastern coastal marshes like Hammonasset already have such ditches, dug in the 1920s and 30s for mosquito control. Or earlier to keep the marsh dry enough for cattle to graze on salt hay, the very plant that the saltmarsh sparrow nests in. More ditches might be dug or old ones widened or deepened.</p><p>Inevitably a sort of gallows humor evolves in studying a species that seems destined for extinction. Enter the ghost cameras. </p><p>Ms. Apgar and Dr. Elphick are making video recordings of nests during high spring tides so they can see what actually happens. At what age can the chicks climb up the grass to survive? Do they live after being inundated? What do the mothers do?</p><p>And they do this in the dark. “Most of the chicks were dying at night in the years we had been studying the birds,” Dr. Elphick said. So they needed cameras that could record video at night. </p><p>Most small video cameras have infrared filters to improve colors, with one notable exception. “I wound up buying these cameras,” Ms. Apgar said, holding one up for inspection, “that are actually from a paranormal activities shop.” </p><p>Apparently ghost hunters also need to see in the dark. Ms. Apgar paired the cameras with lights in the infrared spectrum, which neither birds nor humans can see so the mothers and nestlings are not disturbed. It seems to be working.</p><p>But, as the sun went down and the waters rose, Ms. Apgar said that their team sometimes jokes that the cameras may also “pick up the ghosts of chicks past.”</p>
or redistributed. ©2018 FOX News Network, LLC. All rights reserved. All market data delayed 20 minutes.</p><p>Three humpback whales breach in succession off the coast of Nova Scotia to the amazement of whale watchers.</p><p>Tourists on a whale cruise were treated with a spyhop last month when three humpback whales launched one-by-one in succession off the coast of Nova Scotia in a rare triple breach.</p><p>Edmond Giroux was aboard the Ocean Explorations Zodiac Whale Cruises when he began filming the three whales that surfaced near the boat on August 17.</p><p>“Get ready!” a man who is most likely the tour guide is heard saying. “It’s going to be a triple breach!”</p><p>The whales could be seen first breathing through their blowhole, then diving down, one by one, and then rising above the water, twisting their majestic bodies and then splashing horizontally down back into the ocean.</p><p>The boat’s onlookers clapped in awe and squealed with glee.</p><p>“Oh! How’d you know that?” a passenger was heard saying in the video.</p><p>“One ‘interacted’ with us before joining the other two ‘logging’ for many minutes before ‘take off,’” the whale cruises wrote.</p><p>Amy Lieu is a news editor and reporter for Fox News.</p><p>This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed. ©2018 FOX News Network, LLC. All rights reserved. All market data delayed 20 minutes.</p>
t he planned to invite six to eight artists to join him on the mission.</p><p>The voyage will take place using the company's bullet-shaped Big Falcon Spaceship, or BFS. The ship will launch from Kennedy Space Center, in Florida, atop a huge white booster named the Big Falcon Rocket, or BFR. Both vehicles are still under development.</p><p>The announcement reboots a similar plan SpaceX announced in 2017 to fly two private passengers around the moon using the company's Falcon Heavy rocket and Crew Dragon capsule. The company canceled that flight after deciding not to spend resources certifying Falcon Heavy safe for human flights.</p><p>Maezawa, who is known as an avid art collector, is calling the flight the “Dear Moon project.” He has yet to select the artists he will invite for the trip.</p>
or redistributed. ©2018 FOX News Network, LLC. All rights reserved. All market data delayed 20 minutes.</p><p>SpaceX is set to make a historic announcement, revealing the first private passenger to fly around the Moon on one of its spacecraft.</p><p>"I feel giddy and happy, actually," Musk commented ahead of the inaugural flight on Feb. 6. "I’m super-confident we’ve done everything we can to achieve maximum success of this mission.”</p><p>When the Heavy lifted off from Launch Complex 39A at Kennedy Space Center in Florida, it became the most powerful operating rocket in the world "by a factor of two," SpaceX said.</p><p>But Musk is now working on perfecting SpaceX's other monster rocket, known as the Big Falcon Rocket (BFR). Here's a look at the massive spacecraft, which is set to eventually replace the Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy, as well as its Dragon spacecraft.</p><p>The BFR, which was first announced in September 2016, is a two-stage reusable spaceship system that will weigh 9.7 million pounds and be capable of taking a 330,000 pound payload to Mars and lower-Earth orbit. The reusable 387-foot rocket will have its own dedicated passenger ship.</p><p>Maezawa said the BFR rocket will make the trip in 2023.</p><p>The Falcon Heavy has three first-stage boosters, strapped together with 27 engines in all. Stretching 40 feet at the base and standing 230 feet tall, the Heavy is a triple dose of the Falcon 9, the company's frequent flyer that has just a single booster.</p><p>At liftoff, the Heavy packs about 5 million pounds of thrust. That's about the equivalent to 18 Boeing 747 aircrafts, SpaceX notes.</p><p>In a historic move, Musk, who also runs electric vehicle maker Tesla, placed his cherry Tesla Roadster on the Heavy's maiden flight. No car has ever rocketed into space before, if you don't count NASA's Apollo-era moon buggies.</p><p>Musk plans to eventually use the Heavy to hoist humans, super-sized satellites and other heavy equipment into space. And, one day, he hopes to witness it carry crews of astronauts to the moon, Mars and beyond.</p><p>Musk, however, cautioned early trips to Mars could result in death.</p><p>“For the early people that go to Mars, it will be far more dangerous. It kind of reads like (Ernest) Shackleton’s ad for Antarctic explorers: Difficult, dangerous, good chance you’ll die," Musk said. "Excitement for those who survive.”</p><p>The Falcon 9, named for its nine engines, is much smaller than the Falcon Heavy. The two-stage rocket, which made its debut in June 2010, was designed to carry satellites and the Dragon (see below) cargo capsule safely into orbit.</p><p>One of Falcon 9's best qualities is its affordability. The reusable spacecraft was designed for "maximum reliability."</p><p>"Falcon 9’s simple two-stage configuration minimizes the number of separation events," SpaceX explains. "And it can safely complete its mission even in the event of an engine shutdown."</p><p>The Dragon rocket is the smallest spacecraft of the bunch. It was designed to make cargo runs.</p><p>In fact, in the Dragon capsule made history in 2012. It became the first commercial aircraft to ever deliver cargo to the ISS and succesfully make a return trip to Earth.</p><p>However, SpaceX engineers are making improvements to the rocket so it can eventually carry more than just cargo.</p><p>"Under an agreement with NASA, SpaceX is now developing the refinements that will enable Dragon to fly crew," SpaceX says. "Dragon's first manned test flight is expected to take place as early as 2018."</p><p>This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed. ©2018 FOX News Network, LLC. All rights reserved. All market data delayed 20 minutes.</p>
onal” hopes that test flights of the spacecraft’s upper stage — where passengers would eventually ride — could begin as soon as next year and that the full rocket could make an uncrewed flight to Mars as soon as 2022.</p><p>SpaceX’s technological achievements are significant, including the landing, recovery and reuse of rocket boosters that have typically been discarded after a single flight. But Mr. Musk’s forecasts of SpaceX’s timelines have usually turned out far too optimistic.</p><p>SpaceX successfully launched its newest rocket, the Falcon Heavy, in February.</p><p>He also enlisted his engineers to build a submarine-like escape pod to rescue 12 boys and their coach from a cave in Thailand. That proved unnecessary — the boys were able to swim out with help of divers.</p><p>But when one of the divers, Vernon Unsworth, disparaged the effort, Mr. Musk suggested, without evidence, that Mr. Unsworth was a pedophile. On Monday, Mr. Unsworth announced that he was suing Mr. Musk for defamation.</p><p>By comparison, SpaceX has been an oasis of calm, launching satellites and spacecraft without incident for most of the year.</p><p>This is actually the second time that SpaceX has announced that it will fly tourists to the moon and back.</p><p>With the modernization of electronics leading to smaller satellites and the greater lifting power of newer versions of SpaceX’s workhorse Falcon 9 rocket, the market for the Falcon Heavy is dwindling. (The Heavy has yet to make a second flight, although SpaceX lists the United States Air Force and satellite companies as future customers.) Mr. Musk said in February that SpaceX would not go to the expense and effort of making the Falcon Heavy suitable for human passengers.</p><p>At the same time, SpaceX has begun work on the B.F.R., its next-generation behemoth rocket, more powerful than the Saturn 5 that NASA used for the Apollo missions. The rocket is intended to replace both the Falcon 9 and the Falcon Heavy and is ultimately designed to take 100 people on a journey to Mars. (The “B” stands for “big;” the “R” is for “rocket.” In public, Gwynne Shotwell, SpaceX’s president, states its full name as “Big Falcon Rocket.” Mr. Musk, as well as the company’s news releases, remain ambiguous about what the “F” stands for.)</p><p>The B.F.R. is far more ambitious than the Falcon 9 and the Falcon Heavy — larger, more powerful, and fully reusable — and thus even more likely to encounter technological snags, and the design of the B.F.R. is still evolving.</p><p>The image in the SpaceX tweet shows larger fins on the B.F.R. than what had been seen previously, giving it an appearance more reminiscent of NASA’s retired space shuttles.</p><p>On Twitter, Mr. Musk was asked if this was a new version of the B.F.R.</p><p>It is not yet known if the passenger is one of the two who had put down a deposit last year or whether SpaceX would sell additional seats on the spacious vehicle.</p><p>So far, seven people have paid for a trip to space, riding on a Russian Soyuz rocket for short stays at the International Space Station. (One person, Charles Simonyi, has made two trips.)</p>