Men who drink two cups of coffee or tea a day are more than twice as likely to get partners pregnant

Men who drink two cups of coffee or tea a day are more than twice as likely to get their partner pregnant, a study has suggested.

Experts said the results of the US research could be due to caffeine’s effect on two chemicals, ATP and GTP. 

Men who drink two cups or coffee or tea every day are more than twice as likely to get their partner pregnant (file photo) 

The study also found that women who drink alcohol every other day are 26 per cent less likely to conceive 

Professor Sheena Lewis of Queen’s University in Belfast said: ‘Caffeine prevents them from breaking down so more energy is available to sperm, so it can swim faster or longer.’

The research, led by Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute Of Child Health, also found that women who drink alcohol every other day were 26 per cent less likely to conceive.

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October 11, 2018

Sources: Daily Mail

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    1 October 18, 2018
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  • European explorers spread tuberculosis to the Americas, Africa and Asia hundreds of years ago

    European explorers spread tuberculosis to the Americas, Africa and Asia hundreds of years ago

    eading tuberculosis around the world and making it one of the top 10 global causes of death.</p><p>A study has traced the most common strain of the disease over time and found it began in Europe around 1,000AD before spreading outwards.</p><p>And the time periods TB began to be found on other continents match up with when Europeans began to sail to the unfortunate countries.</p><p>Scientists also traced where antibiotic-resistant strains of the infection are common – a phenomenon they say is a major obstacle to stopping the disease.</p><p>Researchers say the modern form of tuberculosis originated in Europe around 1,000AD and was then spread around the world by explorers who travelled to other continents</p><p>Researchers from University College London and the Norwegian Institute of Public Health published the study in the journal Science Advances. </p><p>They tracked the movement of the most common strain of tuberculosis, named Lineage 4, since it first surfaced in Europe around 1,000 years ago.</p><p>Tuberculosis is a bacterial disease which most commonly affects the lungs and is spread through coughs and sneezes.</p><p>It kills approximately a million people around the world every year – those with HIV, weakened immune systems, or poor access to health care are most at risk.</p><p>Around 200 years after its European debut – in the 1200s – tuberculosis appeared in Asia.</p><p>This matches up with, for example, Marco Polo visiting China towards the end of the 13th Century, suggesting an increase in European travel to the region.</p><p>Then in the 15th Century – the 1400s – tuberculosis spread to Africa and was found in Democratic Republic of the Congo.</p><p>This timing matches up with the Portugese and Ottoman empires taking hold in Africa during the same century.</p><p>Tuberculosis was then found in South and North America separately in the 1500s, coinciding with Italian explorer Christopher Columbus's voyages across the Atlantic.</p><p>In Africa the disease then spread out of the Democratic Republic of the Congo to neighbouring countries Uganda, Malawi and South Africa.</p><p>And this movement mirrors the expansion of European colonies on the continent and internal migration.</p><p>Antibiotic resistant strains, however, do not move much at all, the researchers found.</p><p>They began to appear soon after antibiotics began to be used but do not move much outside of localised areas.</p><p>This could make those particular types of the infection easier to contain because if a local spread can be halted it could protect the rest of the region or country.</p><p>Dr Vegard Eldholm, from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, said: 'Our findings strongly suggest that at least for Lineage 4, antibiotic resistance is a local challenge present in multiple countries and regions, but with minimal spread between them.</p><p>'Therefore, countries that succeed in halting transmission of resistant strains within their territory should expect to see a massive decrease of drug resistant TB.</p><p>'This is not to say that we should not be worried about the international spread of resistant strains, as these patterns might well change in the future, especially if the burden of antibiotic resistance keeps growing.' </p><p>Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial infection spread between people by coughing and sneezing.</p><p>The infection usually affects the lungs but the bacteria can cause problems in any part of the body, including the abdomen, glands, bones and the nervous system.</p><p>In healthy people the bacteria are often killed by the immune system or at least prevented from spreading, but in some cases the bacteria can take hold and cause a more serious infection.</p><p>TB infection causes symptoms like fever, coughing, night sweats, weight loss, tiredness and fatigue, a loss of appetite and swellings in the neck.</p><p>If the immune system fails to contain TB bacteria the infection can take weeks or months to take hold and produce symptoms, and if it is left untreated it can be fatal.</p><p>TB is a common cause of death among people with HIV, because it is particularly dangerous for people with weakened immune systems – people with HIV are thought to be up to 27 times more likely to get the disease.</p><p>With treatment, TB can almost always be cured with antibiotics and people tend to stop being contagious after about three weeks of therapy.</p><p>TB is most common in less developed countries in sub-saharan and west Africa, southeast Asia, Russia, China and South America. </p><p>Do you want to automatically post your MailOnline comments to your Facebook Timeline?</p><p>Your comment will be posted to MailOnline as usual.</p><p>Do you want to automatically post your MailOnline comments to your Facebook Timeline?</p><p> We will automatically post your comment and a link to the news story to your Facebook timeline at the same time it is posted on MailOnline. To do this we will link your MailOnline account with your Facebook account. We’ll ask you to confirm this for your first post to Facebook.</p><p>Part of the Daily Mail, The Mail on Sunday &amp; Metro Media Group</p>

    1 October 18, 2018
  • Your burger probably contains dangerous levels of antibioticS

    Your burger probably contains dangerous levels of antibioticS

    5 burger chains in the US due to the use of beef from cows that were fed antibiotics.</p><p>Only two chains, Shake Shack and Burger Fi, received As for serving burgers that were made of meat taken from cows that didn't have medication in their feed.</p><p>But 21 other chains, including McDonald's, Burger King, In-N-Out and Whataburger, received an F 'for lacking any announced policy to source beef raised without the routine use of antibiotics.' Wendy's scraped by with a D minus. </p><p>The authors of the 2018 Chain Reaction Report said they hope the findings inspire lawmakers to bring about federal policy changes that reduce routine antibiotic use in the livestock sector.</p><p>In the 2018 Chain Reaction Report, only two chains, Shake Shack and Burger Fi, received As for serving burgers made with beef from cows that didn't have antibiotics. Wendy's received a D minus, and the other 22 chains received an F</p><p>Lena Brook, lead researcher of the report and interim director of the food and agriculture program at the Natural Resources Defense Council, one of the organizations that worked on the report, said the group first looked into antibiotics in poultry.</p><p>They were encouraged after seeing the reduction of antibiotics in poultry used by fast food restaurants, which led them to look at burgers.</p><p>Burgers are one of the most popular - and vilified foods - in the US.</p><p>In a report published last year by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), it is estimated that 43 percent of medically important antimicrobials were used in cattle while just six percent is put towards chicken and nine percent towards turkeys.</p><p>'It's an interesting direction to take because we know Americans love their burgers. It's one of the favorite foods in the US,' Brook told Daily Mail Online.</p><p>'So we wanted to hone in on food that America loves and the sector that's buying the beef.'</p><p>She added: 'It was time for us to focus on this sub-sector relative to the supply chain.'</p><p>Fast food chains were chosen for the top 25 list by how much they made in US sales.</p><p>The restaurants were then judged in three areas: if they had made a pledge or policy to stop using antibiotics, if they were implementing the pledge or policy, and if the NRDC could verify this.</p><p>Based on this criteria, Shake Shack and BurgerFi came in as the only two chains found to have a policy in place for serving beef from cows that weren't fed antibiotics.</p><p>Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria change to 'outsmart' or resist antibiotic medicine, making it close to impossible to treat the infection.</p><p>The bacterium that carries resistance genes to many different antibiotics is called a superbug. </p><p>Most of these infections occur in hospitals or in medical care facilities, such as nursing homes.</p><p>The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said that more than two million people are infected with antibiotic resistant bacteria every year.</p><p>More than 23,000 people die from these infections each year. </p><p>Experts say that if the epidemic is not brought under control, superbugs may kill more people than cancer by the year 2050.</p><p>There are multiple factors that have contributed to the rise of superbugs:</p><p>Brook said she was only slightly surprised by the results, but thought she would see higher grades from smaller chains.</p><p>'The top 25 list encompassed a lot of smaller regional chains that are newer and a new generation of burger chains that are nipping at the heel of the big guys,' Brook said.</p><p>'They are more dedicated to serving responsibly raised beef so I thought a lot of them might be using antibiotic-free beef.'</p><p>Among the chains Brook listed included Smashburger, which was founded in 2007 and has more than 370 locations in the US.</p><p>Smaller burger companies that did not make the top 25 list did get honorable mentions including Elevation Burger and Burger Lounge, both which have no more than 50 US locations and serve beef raised without antibiotics.</p><p>Wendy's received a D minus for purchasing 15 percent of its beef supply from a producer that has reduced the use of an antibiotic, tylosin, by 20 percent.</p><p>The authors state that the policy is 'far from comprehensive' but 'a positive step forward'. </p><p>The other 22 chains received an F. McDonald's spokeswoman Lauren Altim said that, as of 2016, the restaurant does not serve chicken raised with antibiotics and that it is currently finalizing a policy for beef that will be implemented by the end of 2018.</p><p>'Preserving the effectiveness of antibiotics for future generations is highly important to McDonald's,' she added.</p><p>In the same vein, In-N-Out said in 2016 that it intended to source beef raised without antibiotics but the researchers say the company 'has yet to follow through with a time-bound commitment or provide any updates on its progress.'  </p><p>According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than two million people are infected with antibiotic resistant bacteria every year.</p><p>More than 23,000 people die from these infections each year.  </p><p>Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria change to 'outsmart' or resist antibiotic medicine, making it close to impossible to treat the infection.</p><p>The bacterium that carries resistance genes to many different antibiotics is called a superbug.</p><p>The growth of antibiotic resistance has been driven by several factors including the over-prescription of drugs for viruses, (which are not a bacterium and therefore ineffective in treatment), incorrect prescriptions and doses, and the drugs' use in agriculture. </p><p>The restaurants were judged in three areas: if they had made a pledge or policy to stop using antibiotics, if they were implementing the pledge or policy , and if the NRDC could verify this. Pictured: a burger and soft drink at Shake Shack</p><p>McDonald's spokeswoman Lauren Altim said that the restaurant does not serve chicken raised with antibiotics and that it is currently finalizing a policy for beef that will be implemented by the end of 2018. Pictured: a McDonald's Big Mac and french fries</p><p>The World Health Organization says antibiotic resistance has 'accelerated' due to the misuse of antibiotics, in both humans and animals.</p><p>Antibiotics are not just used to treat sick animals, but also to help them grow faster and to prevent disease before it even strikes. </p><p>Last month, the FDA unveiled a five-year plan to reduce the use of antibiotics in animal production.</p><p>Steps include the medications only being used at the advice of licensed veterinarians or when livestock is ill.</p><p>'The next step is to set in place a federal policy that bans antibiotics so that they are only used when animals are sick,' Brook said. </p><p>'Right now we don't even have a set goal for reduction in the livestock sector. I'm really grateful for the progress we made in the poultry companies. If it's translated into beef supplies, then we can create a domino effect.'  </p><p>She added that consumers have real power to make companies listen. </p><p>'What I always like to tell readers and eaters is that their voice really matters. If they eat at those companies receiving As, let all the restaurant managers know because they like hearing from you,' Brook said.</p><p>'If they're eating at restaurants that are receiving an F, they then ought to send a message to these restaurant managers stating their concerns.' </p><p> The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline. </p><p>Do you want to automatically post your MailOnline comments to your Facebook Timeline?</p><p>Your comment will be posted to MailOnline as usual.</p><p>Do you want to automatically post your MailOnline comments to your Facebook Timeline?</p><p> We will automatically post your comment and a link to the news story to your Facebook timeline at the same time it is posted on MailOnline. To do this we will link your MailOnline account with your Facebook account. We’ll ask you to confirm this for your first post to Facebook.</p><p>Part of the Daily Mail, The Mail on Sunday &amp; Metro Media Group</p>

    1 October 18, 2018
  • Oxford professor claims the  BLACK DEATH could return with a vengeance

    Oxford professor claims the BLACK DEATH could return with a vengeance

    bal temperatures could unleash biological agents which had been trapped for thousands of years. </p><p>Climate scientists warned last week that the world will suffer extreme weather and natural disasters including drought and flood if the rise in global temperatures is not kept below 1.5C (2.7°F). </p><p>Global warming could bring back killer diseases such as the Black Death (pictured in a drawing) which wiped out tens of millions of people in the Middle Ages, an Oxford professor has claimed</p><p>He said: 'The process of what happens when there is this kind of climate change is enormous. </p><p>'For example, in the 1340s, a 1.5°C (2.7°F) movement of heating of the earth’s atmosphere - probably because of solar flares or volcanic activity - changes the cycle of Yersinia pestis bacterium.</p><p>'That one and a half degree difference allowed a small microbe to develop into the Black Death.' </p><p>The unfreezing of permafrost would release agents that had been buried for millennia, he said. </p><p>The professor of global history said there was 'absolutely no chance' that countries would keep within the 1.5°C (2.7°F)limit.  </p><p>The Black Death in the 1340s was one of the deadliest outbreaks of disease in human history. </p><p>Tens of millions of people were killed, with bodies piled into mass graves. Some scholars believe that as much as half of Europe's population was wiped out. </p><p>The Black Death in the 1340s was one of the deadliest outbreaks of disease in human history. Pictured: a mass grave uncovered at the site of a 14th-century monastery in Lincolnshire</p><p>The disease is thought to have arrived in Europe - beginning in Italy and spreading across the continent - after being transported from Asia. </p><p>Experts say it reduced the world's population from an estimated 450 million to almost 350 million in 1400, causing significant social change.  </p><p>Further outbreaks of plague included a killer outbreak in London in 1665 in which an estimated 100,000 people died in 18 months.   </p><p>In a bid to quarantine germs, victims were shut inside and their houses marked with a red cross, while going to public events was banned. </p><p>London's last recorded death from plague was in 1679.  </p><p>Plague can be treated with antibiotics in the current climate but experts are still concerned it will cause havoc because it is constantly mutating. </p><p>The plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, was the cause of some of the world's deadliest pandemics, including the Justinian Plague, the Black Death, and the major epidemics that swept through China in the late 1800s. </p><p>The disease continues to affect populations around the world today. </p><p>The Black Death of 1348 famously killed half of the people in London within 18 months, with bodies piled five-deep in mass graves.</p><p>When the Great Plague of 1665 hit, a fifth of people in London died, with victims shut in their homes and a red cross painted on the door with the words 'Lord have mercy upon us'.</p><p>The pandemic spread from Europe through the 14th and 19th centuries - thought to come from fleas which fed on infected rats before biting humans and passing the bacteria to them.</p><p>But modern experts challenge the dominant view that rats caused the incurable disease.</p><p>Experts point out that rats were not that common in northern Europe, which was hit equally hard by plague as the rest of Europe, and that the plague spread faster than humans might have been exposed to their fleas. </p><p>Most people would have had their own fleas and lice, when the plague arrived in Europe in 1346, because they bathed much less often. </p><p> The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline. </p><p>Do you want to automatically post your MailOnline comments to your Facebook Timeline?</p><p>Your comment will be posted to MailOnline as usual.</p><p>Do you want to automatically post your MailOnline comments to your Facebook Timeline?</p><p> We will automatically post your comment and a link to the news story to your Facebook timeline at the same time it is posted on MailOnline. To do this we will link your MailOnline account with your Facebook account. We’ll ask you to confirm this for your first post to Facebook.</p><p>Part of the Daily Mail, The Mail on Sunday &amp; Metro Media Group</p>

    1 October 17, 2018

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